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30, 



L T H E 



Black Watch 

at Ticonderoga 

and 

Major Duncan Campbell 
of Inverawe^ 



By FREDERICK B. RICHARDS, A. M. 

Secretary of N. Y. State Historical Association : Glens Falls, N. Y. 




AM EXCERPT FROM VOLUME X OF THE PROCEEDINGS 
OF THE NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

PRINTED FOR FORT TICONDEROQA MUSEUM LIBRARY 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



BY FREDERICK B. RICHARDS, A. M., Glens Falls, -N. 



A residence of ten years in Ticonderoga inspired me with an 
appreciation of the history of that most historic spot in America, 
and when as secretary of the Ticonderoga Historical Society I 
was instrumental in securing the erection of the Black Watch 
Memorial in that village, I became particularly interested in the 
record of that famous Highland Regiment which this building com- 
memorates. 

It has for several years been my wish to write so complete an 
account of the Black Watch at Ticonderoga that one would need 
look in no other place for any detail in the history of that regi- 
ment from the time it left Scotland in 1756 until after the capture 
of Ticonderoga by Amherst in 1759. As a meeting of the New York 
State Historical Association on Lake Champlain seemed an appro- 
priate time to present such a paper and the printed histories of 
that period give only meagre accounts on this subject, Mrs. Rich- 
ards and I made this an excuse for a trip to the British Isles and 
a large part of August and September, 1910, was spent on a Black 
Watch pilgrimage. We had a very enjoyable trip and gained many 
interesting facts but I am sorry to say that the story is still far 
from complete. 

The reason for the lack of more detailed information about the 
Regiment in the Ticonderoga period is found in the following which 
is copied from the preface of Stewart of Garth's first edition: 

"The origin of these Sketches and Military Details was simply 
this: When the Forty-second regiment was removed from Dublin 
to Donaghadee in the year 1771, the baggage was sent round by 
sea. The vessel having it on board was unfortunately driven on 
shore by a gale of wind, and wrecked ; the greater part of the cargo 
and baggage was lost, and the portion saved, especially the regi- 
mental books and records, was much injured. A misfortune some- 



2 NEW YORK. STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

what similar occurred, when the army, under the Earl of Moira, 
landed at Ostend in June, 1794. The transports were ordered 
round to Helvoetsluys, with orders to wait the further movements 
of the troops. But the vessels had not been long there, when the 
enemy invaded Holland in great force, and, entering Helvoetsluys, 
seized on the transports in the harbour. Among the number of 
vessels taken were those which had conveyed the Forty-second to 
Flanders, having on board every article of regimental baggage, 
except the knapsacks with which the officers and soldiers had 
landed at Ostend in light marching order. Along with the baggage, 
a well-selected library, and, what was more to be regretted, all that 
remained of the historical records of the regiment, from the period 
of its formation till the year 1793, fell into the hands of the enemy. 

"After the conclusion of the late war, his Royal Highness, the 
Commander-in-Chief, directed that the Forty-second should draw 
up a record of its services and enter it in the regimental books, for 
the information of those who should afterwards belong to the 
corps. As none of the officers who had served previously to the 
loss of the records in 1794 were then in the regiment, some diffi- 
culty arose in drawing up the required statement of service ; indeed, 
to do so correctly was found impossible, as, for a period of fifty- 
four years previous to 1793, the materials were very defective. In 
this situation, the commanding officer, in the year 1817, requested 
me to supply him with a few notices on the subject." 

It seemed to have been the custom in the British army of that 
period for a Regiment to carry its entire belongings with it from 
place to place and this unfortunate practice has swept from exist- 
ence every trace of the Regimental records of the Black Watch of 
Ticonderoga. 

It may be readily seen that if Colonel Stewart who had all the 
information in 1817 which the British government was able to 
supply and who was also fortunate in having had an intimate 
acquaintance during his service in the Regiment with officers who 
have served almost from its formation, was unable to write a com- 
plete record, the task nearly one hundred years later might be 
considered well nigh hopeless. There was the hope, however, that 
some record which was then lost might have been discovered since 
Colonel Stewart's time or that interesting matter might be found in 
the archives of the families who had sons in the Black Watch of 
1758. It is a fact that only recently the regimental records of the 
Black Watch of two decades later were found in an old second-hand 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 3 

book store in Portsmouth and it is still possible that the regimental 
records of 1758-9, which are now lost, may yet come to light. 

We find that nearly all the histories of the Highland Regiments 
follow Stewart of Garth nearly word for word in their accounts of 
the early history of the Black Watch. A notable exception, how- 
ever, is "A Military History of Perthshire," which has much 
that is new. There are also many interesting letters and other 
records in "The Chronicles of the Atholl and Tullibardine Fami- 
lies," relating to the service of those of the Black Watch who came 
from the Atholl Family or estate, and at London we found some 
dispatches in the Public Record Office in the War Department 
which I have not seen published. The chief merit, however, if any, 
which I can claim for this address is that while it does not add 
much that is new, it does, I think, collect in one article nearly all 
that is known about the Black Watch of the Ticonderoga period. 

I might say here, also, that whatever was lacking in in- 
formation was more than made up by the cordiality of our recep- 
tion, as we found nearly every Scotsman interested in the oldest 
Highland Regiment of the British Army and glad to help us in any- 
way possible. We are under special obligation, which I here wish 
to acknowledge, to Lt. Col. Hugh Rose, the present commander 
of the First Battalion of the Black Watch; Major D. L. Wilson 
Farquharson, D. S. 0., who represented the Regiment at the un- 
veiling of the memorial tablet at Ticonderoga, July 4, 1906, now 
retired and living in Allargue in Aberdeenshire, the home of the 
Farquharson's for many generations ; W. Skeoch Gumming of Edin- 
burgh, artist and authority on Scottish costumes and tartans of the 
18th century; Mrs. Campbell of Dunstaffnage, present owner of 
old Inverawe House; the Marchioness of Tullibardine, editor of 
<% 'A Military History of Perthshire," and the Duke of Atholl, present 
head of the Clan Murray, Honorary Colonel of the Third Battalion 
of the Black Watch and compiler of the "Chronicles of the Atholl 
and Tullibardine Families." 

Before proceeding to the Black Watch of Ticonderoga, it would 
perhaps be well to give a brief history of the Regiment. There is 
considerable difference- of opinion as to just when the independent 
companies which were afterwards to become the present regiment 



4 NEW YOBK STATE HISTOBICAL ASSOCIATION 

of the line were raised. The earliest record I have seen is that on 
the 3rd of August, 1667, King Charles II issued a commission under 
the Great Seal to John, second Earl of Atholl "to raise and keep 
such a number of men as he should think fit to be a constant guard 
for securing the peace in the Highlands" and "to watch upon the 
braes." 1 

From this time until 1739 the Black Watch was in various 
stages of formation. 1 

It was at the period of the independent companies that the 
name Black Watch was given Black from the sombre tartan in 
contrast to the regular soldiers who at that time had coats, waist- 
coats and breeches of scarlet cloth, and Watch because their duties 
were to watch or keep order in the Highlands. The character of 
the rank and file of the Black Watch of this period was exceedingly 
high, many gentlemen with servants serving as privates, and in 
addition to the enlistment being from the best families it was also 
possible to select only "men of full height, well proportioned and 
of handsome appearance." There were several reasons for this, the 
principal one being probably the fact that at that period the carry- 
ing of arms was prohibited by penalties and it became an "object 
of ambition with all the young men of spirit to be admitted even 
as privates into a service which gave them the privilege of wearing 
arms." Our interest in the Black Watch, however, is principally 
in the Regiment of the line as such and this dates from the com- 
mission given by George II, October 25, 1739, as follows: 

"GEORGE R Whereas we have thought fit, that a regiment 
of foot be forthwith formed under your command, and to consist 
of ten companies, each to contain one captain, one lieutenant, one 
ensign, three Serjeants, three corporals, two drummers, and one 
hundred effective private men; which said regiment shall be partly 
formed out of six Independent Companies of Foot in the High- 
lands of North Britain, three of which are now commanded by 
captains, and three by captain-lieutenants. Our will and pleasure 
therefore is, that one serjeant, one corporal, and fifty private men, 
be forthwith taken out of the three companies commanded by cap- 
tains, and ten private men from the three commanded by captain- 
lieutenants, making one hundred and eighty men, who are to be 



1 A Military History of Perthshire, Page 28. 

2 The most complete account of the independent companies may be 
found in "A Military History of Perthshire." 




a , 42f RE$T 1751 

from- a* painting of Windsor 



The tallest men of the Regiment of that period were formed into a 
Grenadier Company and wore the Grenadier bearskin. The rest of the 
uniform as above and the substitution of the blue bonnet for the bear- 
skin was the uniform for the rest of the Regiment. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEEOGA 5 

equally distributed into the four companies hereby to be raised; 
and the three Serjeants and three corporals, draughted as afore- 
said, to be placed to such of the four companies as you shall judge 
proper; and the remainder of the non-commissioned officers and 
private men, wanting to complete them to the above number, to be 
raised in the Highlands with all possible speed; the men to be 
natives of that country, and none other to be taken. 

This regiment shall commence and take place according to the 
establishment thereof. And of these our orders and commands, 
you, and the said three captains, and the three captain-lieutenants 
commanding at present the six Independent Highland Companies, 
and all others concerned, are to take notice, and to yield obedience 
thereunto accordingly. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, this 25th day of October, 
1739, and in the 13th year of our reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

(Signed) : Wm. Yonge. 

To our Right Trusty and Right Well- 
Beloved Cousin, John Earl of 
Craufurd and Lindsay. 

May, 1740, these ten companies were mustered in a field be- 
tween Taybridge and Aberfeldy and in the army list of that year 
were known as "Earl of Crawford's Regiment of Foot in the High- 
lands." 1 There have been several changes of the official name of the 
Regiment but the "Black Watch" was always the familiar one in 
the country where it has drawn its recruits and since 1881 has been 
the official name in the British Army List. 1 

The uniform of this period was a "scarlet jacket and waist- 
coat, with buff facings and white lace, tartan plaid of twelve yards 
plaited round the middle of the body, the upper part being fixed 
on the left shoulder, ready to be thrown loose and wrapped over 
both shoulders and firelock in rainy weather. At night, the plaid 
served the purpose of a blanket, and was a sufficient covering for 
the Highlanders. These were called beltd plaids, from being kept 
tight to the body by a belt, and were worn on guards, reviews, and 
on all occasions when the men were in full dress. On this belt 
hung the pistols and dirk when worn. In the barracks, and when 
not on duty, the little kilt or philibeg was worn, a blue bonnet with 

1 See Appendix for list of officers. 

2 See Appendix for the regimental names of the Black Watch at differ- 
ent periods. 



6 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

a border of white, red, and green, arranged in small squares to 
resemble, as is said, the fess cheque in the arms of the different 
branches of the Stewart family, and a tuft of feathers, or some- 
times, from economy or necessity, a small piece of black bearskin. 
The arms were a musket, a bayonet, and a large basket-hilted 
broadsword. These were furnished by Government; such of the 
men as chose to supply themselves with pistols and dirks were 
allowed to carry them, and targets after the fashion of the country. 
The sword-belt was of black leather, and the cartouch-box was 
carried in front, supported by a narrow belt round the middle." 1 

"While the companies acted independently, each commander 
assumed the tartan of his own Clan. When embodied, no clan 
having a superior claim to offer an uniform plaid to the whole, and 
Lord Crawford, the colonel, being a Lowlander, a new pattern 
was assumed, and which has ever since been known as the 42d, or 
Black Watch tartan, being distinct from all others. 2 Lord John 
Murray gave the Athole tartan for the philibeg. The difference 
was only a stripe of scarlet, to distinguish it from that of the 
belted plaid. The pipers wore a red tartan of very bright colours, 
(of the pattern known by the name of the Stewart or Royal Tar- 
tan), so that they could be more clearly seen at a distance. When 
a band of music was added, plaids of the pipers' pattern were given 
to them." 3 

Having given briefly the origin of the Regiment, we will pass 
to the period which is the subject of our article. 

May, 1756, war having been formally declared between France 
and England, a body of troops, the Highlanders forming a part, 
were embarked under the command of Lieut. General James Aber- 
crombie and landed at New York, June, 1756. These were soon 
followed by more troops under the Earl of Loudon who was ap- 
pointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army of America. 

The official name of the Regiment at this time was the 42d 
Regiment of Foot, but they are often spoken of in dispatches 
simply as the Highlanders, because they were the only Highland 
Regiment then in this section, or as Lord John Murray's High- 
landers from the custom of the times of calling a Regiment by the 

1 Stewart of Garth, Page 246, Vol. I. 

2 Capt. I. H. Mackay Scobie claims that this tartan was probably 
evolved from a Campbell Sett and was a Government pattern for Govern- 
ment service, worn by the independent companies of the Black Watch be- 
fore embodied in 1739 and also by other Scottish regiments. "The Govern- 
ment or Black Watch Tartan" Army Historical Research, Vol. I, Page 154. 

3 Stewart of Garth, Page 247, Vol. I. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 7 

name of its Honorary Colonel. The commander of the Black 
Watch at this time was Lieut. Col. Francis Grant, son of the Laird 
of Grant, who had served in the Regiment from the time he had 
received his commission as Ensign, October 25, 1739. He was made 
Lieutenant Colonel December 17, 1755 and was in command of the 
Regiment all through the American campaign. The only other 
officer who had served continuously from the formation of the 
Regiment in 1739 was Gordon Graham of Drainie, who in 1756 was 
senior captain. 

The record of the Regiment from the landing in June, 1756, 
until the battle of July, 1758, is exceedingly meagre. In fact 
nothing of importance was done by the whole army. As one author 
puts it "Loudon was so engrossed in schemes for improving the 
condition of his men that he seemed to have no time for employing 
them against the enemy." The following extract from a letter 
from the Earl of Loudon to William Pitt dated New York, March 
10th, 1757, will illustrate the method of quartering troops of that 
period. 

"In the end of your letter you have acquainted me, that words 
shall be inserted, in the mutiny act to take away every doubt about 
the Right of Quartering extending to America. 

When I writ on that subject, I was but just arrived, and the 
troops were mostly encamped. Since that I have had disputes to 
settle, all over this Continent, in settling the winter quarters for 
the Troops from whence I find, that the manner of quartering in 
England, as in time of peace, on Publick Houses only, will in no 
shape answer the intent in this country, for there are few Publick 
Houses and most of them sell nothing but spirits, where they possess 
only one room in which they sell the liquor, where men cannot be 
quartered. 

Whilst the war lasts, necessity will justify exceeding that rule, 
as Troops must be under cover, in the places where it is necessary 
to post them, for the security of the country and carrying on the 
service, but as soon as a peace comes, it will, by the English rule, 
be impossible to quarter any number of Troops, in this country, 
without a new regulation, and the only remedy that occurs to me at 
present, is adopting the method of quartering in Scotland, where 
for the same reason of there not being Publick Houses sufficient 
for the reception of Troops they are by law quartered on private 
houses. 



8 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

I must beg leave to give you one instance of the situation of 
quarters here. When I arrived at Albany, I do not believe it was 
possible to have quartered Fifty men on that town, on all the 
Publick Houses in it, and taking a full survey of it, I found that 
by quartering on the Private Houses, I can, without incommoding 
them, in the parts of their houses, in which they live, quarter 
Fourteen Hundred men, and for a short time, in case of necessity, 
I could quarter Two thousand. I have mentioned this to show you 
what the situation of all the Frontier Places, in this country that 
are liable to attacks, must be, if quartering is likely to be kept to, 
on Publick Houses only. 

On the 10th instant arrived the Harriet Packet which brought 
me the duplicates of your letters of the 9th and llth of January, 
and the next day came in here His Majesty's ship the Hampshire 
commanded by Captain Norbury, having under his convoy the 
nine additional companies of the Highlanders,* wha had a passage 
of twelve weeks from Cork, and met with very bad weather; of 
this convoy there were missing on his arrival in this Port, the 
Arundal and Salisbury Transports. The last we have, since, 
accounts of her getting into Rhode Island. 

The Troops being sickly, I have cantooned them in villages 
adjacent to this Port, for the sake of fresh provisions and vege 
tables." 

In the published histories of the time it is stated that the 
"42d remained inactive in or near Albany during 1756 and that 
throughout the winter and spring of the following year the men 
were drilled and disciplined for bush fighting and markmanship, 
a species of warfare for which they were well fitted, being for the 
most part good shots and experts in the management of arms." 

From the following letters found in the Public Record Of- 
fice in London the quarters for the winter of 1756-7 were proba- 
bly at Schenectady. Extract from letter from Loudon to Pitt, 
New York, 25th April, 1757, "The Highlanders were set in motion 
from Schenectady * * * they marched without tents and lay 
in the woods upon the snow making great fires and I do not find 
the troops have suffered * * * We have on that River (Mohawk) 
at Schenectady and up to the German Flats, the Highland Regi- 
ment upwards of a thousand men," etc. 



3 additional Companies Black Watch and 3 for Montgomery's and 3 
for Fraser's, stationed at Halifax. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 9 

The second letter reads as follows, and while it is chiefly of 
interest in this connection because it is dated from Schenectady, 
it also illustrates the custom of selling commissions: 

Schenectady, April 24, 1757. _^\ 
Francis Grant, Lt. Col. 42d Regiment. Sir: ; " > >-* ;Li .. 

I am convinced from several things that have happened me" 
since I have been in the Regiment that my continuing to serve any 
longer in it would be disagreeable to the whole corps of officers and 
being likewise sensible of my own unfitness for a military life I 
have resolved to quit the Army as soon as I can obtain leave to 
resign my commission. But as I have nothing else in the world to 
depend upon and finding myself at present at a distance from 
my family and friends or anyone whom I can depend on for 
advice, interest or assistance and having frequently experienced 
your goodness and favor, I have made bold to apply to you that 
you would be pleased to intercede with his Excellency the Earl of 
Loudon, in my behalf that His Lordship in consideration of my 
distressed situation and circumstances might be moved to give me 
leave to resign in favor of some person that would be willing to 
allow me wherewithal to support me till I can settle and apply to 
some other way of life. 

In doing me this favor you'll forever oblige, Sir, 

Your respectful and gratefully obed't hum. serv't, 

George Maclagan, Ens. 

p. s. If it is agreeable to your Lordship I am willing to pay 
fifty pound Sterling for Mr. Peter Grant Voluntier. 

Francis Grant, Lt. Col. 42d. Regt." 

With these two dispatches from the British War Office as a 
clew I have tried to learn more about the winter quarters of the 
Black Watch and have looked through the Colonial manuscript in 
the New York State Library, *the Records of the City of Albany 
and the published works of the period but so far without success. 
I have been unable to find any Schenectady records of this period. 
It seems that a valuable collection of Glen-Sanders papers from the 
old Mansion across the Mohawk from Schenectady was recently 
sold and I have been told that in these there were several refer- 



* The only reference to the Black Watch that I could find in the un- 
published Colonial Manuscripts in the N. Y. State Library was the report 
of the receipt at New York, 8th July, 1757, from the ship Free Mason of 
22 Bales, 10 Casks and 1 Box for Lord John Murray's Regiment. Colonial 
Mss., 1757, Vol. 84, Page 126. 



10 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

ences to officers of the Black Watch. As the Glens 1 were Scots it 
would be quite likely that if this collection were not now scattered 
to the four winds much information about the Highlanders could 
be obtained. It is said that Schenectady was only a frontier vil- 
lage in 1756 and not large enough to take care of a regiment and 
it seems to be a fact from the reference given above that only a 
part of the thousand men were stationed here as it states that the 
Regiment was stretched along the Mohawk from Schenectady to 
the German Flats, but that it was a station for troops is proven by 
the list in the Public Record Office of the winter quarters for the 
troops in America for 1758, which states that the Black Watch 
was quartered in New York and Lt. General Murray's at Schenec- 
tady. There is in the Public Record Office no list of winter quarters 
of the troops in America previous to 1758.* 



* After this article had gone to press I received through the kindness 
of Arthur Doughty Litt, D. Archivist of the Dominion of Canada, a copy 
of the references to the Black Watch in the archives at Ottawa and one 
reference proves that the 42nd was stationed at Schenectady the winter of 
1756-7, as follows: Nov. 22, 1756, Loudon to Fox, the 42nd Regiment I 
quartered at Schenectady from whence they take the posts, on the Mohawk 
River, etc. See Appendix. 

It appears, however, from the Town Records of Stamford, 
Conn., that a committee representing that town made a claim on 
the "General Court" of the Colony of Connecticut to reimburse 
them for 369-13-4 1-2 which the town had expended "in taking 
care of the Highlanders from November 30, 1757, to March 30, 
1758. The soldiers numbered 250 officers and men and they had 
also belonging to them 17 women and 9 children." They were 
probably part of the Black Watch. The only other Highland regi- 
ments of that time were Montgomery's and Eraser's, both raised in 
1757 and their arrival at New York from Halifax is noted in the 
'Tost Boy" of April 11, 1757. This town record also further 
illustrates the custom of that time as previously stated and as an 
officer of the present Regiment aptly puts it, "they took not only 
their mess plate but their wives also, on service with them, and 
sometimes lost both." 



1 Col. John Glen, born July 2, 1735, died Sept. 23, 1828, was quartermas- 
ter during the French and Indian and also the Revolutionary wars and was 
a man of great prominence in this locality. His brother, Col. Henry Glen, 
born July 13, 1739, died January 6, 1814, was deputy quartermaster under 
his brother and was member of Congress from Albany District from 1794 
to 1802. Schenectady at that time was in Albany District. It was Col. 
John Glen who gave the name to Glens Falls, changing it from Wing's 
Falls, it is said as the result of a wine supper. 




a 
o 

fA 



W) 

= 
H 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 11 

This 250 at Stamford would only be a quarter of the Regi- 
ment, however, if Loudon had upwards of a thousand at or near 
Schenectady the winter before and it is probable that the rest were 
quartered at or near Schenectady as in 1756. ;-- * 

Another statement that I have tried to confirm is the account 
by James Grant in his "Legends of the Black Watch" of the 50 
chosen men under orders of MacGillivray of Glen Arrow, who went 
to reinforce Col. Munro at Fort William Henry. It is also said 
in a foot note of Wilson's Orderly Book that Capt. Gordon Graham 
was at Fort William Henry at the time of the surrender, and this 
is repeated in N. Y. Colonial Mss. by O'Callaghan, page 728, Vol. 
10, but I have not been able to find any other reference that would 
substantiate these statements. 

The only time the 42d emerges from the haze of mystery from 
June, 1756, to the spring of 1758, is that they were a part of 
Loudon's expedition against Louisbourg in 1757, and this was more 
a summer vacation than an act of war. 

If the English could have attacked Louisbourg in the spring 
or early summer, success would have been certain but Loudon 
couldn't seem to get started. As a messenger from the Governor 
of Pennsylvania, who had waited in vain for a reply to a message, 
said about him he was like "St. George on a tavern sign, always 
on horse back and never riding on." The expedition did not' 
start from New York until June 20th and entered Halifax harbor 
the 30th. Even after this delay he was there before Admiral Hoi- 
bourne, who did not arrive from England with his fleet of 15 ships- 
of-the-line and 3 frigates, with 5,000 troops until July 10th. Then 
there was more delay, the 12,000 troops were landed and weeks 
spent in drilling and planting vegetables for their refreshment. 
Lord Charles Hay was put under arrest for saying that the "na- 
tion's money was spent in sham battles and raising cabbages." The 
troops were embarked again, but Aug. 4th a sloop came from New- 
foundland bringing news of the arrival of three French squadrons 
at Louisbourg and as an attack after this reinforcement would be 
hopeless, the costly enterprise was abandoned and Loudon and the 
troops sailed back to New York where he arrived Aug. 31st. Delay 



12 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

was the ruin of the Louisbourg expedition and drew off British 
forces from the frontier where they were most needed. 

1 The troops were started immediately up the Hudson as soon 
as they were landed at New York but Fort William Henry had 
already been captured Aug. 9th and the French forces had fallen 
back to Ticonderoga. 

The spring of 1758 opened up with bright prospects. Lord 
Loudon had been recalled and General Abercrombie, with the able 
assistance of Lord Howe, was in command. Admiral Boscowen 
was appointed to command the fleet and Major-General Amherst 
and Brigadier-Generals Wolfe, Townsend and Murray were added 
to the military staff. Three expeditions were proposed for this 
year, Louisbourg, Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and Fort Du- 
Quesne. The army in America had been largely reinforced during 
the winter and spring. Of these reinforcements the 42d was strength- 
ened by three additional companies and recruits bringing the Regi- 
ment up to about 1,300 men. 

As we have considerable information about these three com- 
panies through the Atholl Records, it will be interesting to turn 
back and follow them from the start to the beginning of the Ti- 
conderoga campaign. The first item and one of interest because it 
shows the method of raising companies in those days, is a letter 
from the Duke of Argyll to the Duke of Atholl, dated London, 
July 9, 1757 * 

"My Lord: This is to acquaint your Grace that there is to be 
3 additional Companies raised for Lord John Murray's Regiment. 
I believe the nomination of the officers will be left to me and conse- 
quently to Your Grace; there will be 3 captains, 6 lieutenants and 
3 ensigns and 100 men each company. The raising the men will 
be the merit of those who shall desire to be officers and if any can 
be found who have served in Holland, so much the better. Your 
Grace will have your thought on this but don't promise anybody 
till you let me hear from you. I shall speak to Lord John but I 
will bid him consult you and will plainly tell him that the com- 
missions must all be given gratis. The other two Highland Regi- 
ments will likewise have the same addition made to them. 

I am with the greatest truth and respect, My Lord, Yr Gr's 
most faithful and obt. h'ble Servant, Argyll 



* Atholl Records, page 428, Vol. III. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 13 

By the Duke of Atholl's recommendation the three companies 
were given to James Stewart of Urrard; James Murray, nephew 
of the Duke of Atholl and son of Lord George Murray; and 
Thomas Stirling of Ardoch. Three of the new subalterns were from 
the Atholl estate, namely Lieut. Alexander Menzies and Ensigns 
Duncan Stewart, son of Derculich, and George Rattray, son of. 
Dalralzion. The three companies were mustered in October and 
marched from Perth to Glasgow, where they remained until Novem- 
ber 15, when they marched to Greenock and embarked December 
1st in transports for Cork en route to America. 

April 22, 1758, Capt. James Murray wrote from New York to 
Mr. Murray of Strowan announcing his safe arrival after a voyage 
of eleven weeks from Cork. The joys of a voyage in those times 
when it could take ten days to sail from Scotland to Ireland, is 
illustrated by a letter from Capt. Murray, dated Youghall, 11 
Dec., 1757.* 

My dear Brother: This is to let you know that I am just now 
in good health and safely arrived here with my company. My 
transport, together with the other five, set sail on the 1st cur't in 
the evening along with the Convoy; we had a fair wind and good 
weather until Sunday, early in the morning (when we were past 
Waterfort in our way to Corck) about eight, there came on one 
of the most prodigeous storms that the sailors said they had never 
seen the like before. About two in the afternoon we lost sight of 
the Convoy and all the transports and have not yet any sure 
accounts whether they have got all safe into harbours or not. But 
since I came here I hear that there was five or six ships lost on the 
Coast that day. The storm abated somewhat Monday morning 
but it continued bad weather until Friday evening ,during which 
time we were often in risk of our lives especially twice, once being 
within two yards of a great rock and the other time when we were 
on two fathom water going on a sandbank. 

During all that time we were near several harbours, such as 
Doublin, Waterfort, Corck and others but all without success. 
Saturday and this day we had good weather by which means we. 
got into harbour. 

Your most aff 'te brother, 
James Murray. 

From November until April seems a long voyage from Scotland 
to America even in those days of primitive navigation, but another 

* Atholl Records, p 433, Vol. III. 



14 NEW YOEK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

of the three additional companies was blown into Antigua and did 
not arrive at New York until June. 

With the activities of the preparations for the Ticonderoga 
campaign a number of dispatches were sent to the Home Govern- 
ment and it is possible to follow more closely the fortunes of the 
Black Watch. 

The addition of these three companies raised the Regiment to 
1,300 men, and we find among the official documents a petition from 
Capt. Gordon Graham, endorsed by Lt. Col. Grant and General 
Abercrombie, asking to be made Major in addition to Major Dun- 
can Campbell, as follows:* 

To His Excellency James Abercromby. Esq., General and Com- 
mander in Chief of all His Majesty's forces in North America, 
etc., etc., etc. 

The Memorial of Gordon Graham, eldest Captain in His 
Majesty's 42nd Regiment of Foot in North America. 

Humbly sheweth 

That your memorialist hath had the honour to serve His 
Majesty upwards of twenty-five years, twelve of which as Captain 
in the above Regiment and is now eldest in that Rank. 

That he hath served in Flanders and elsewhere during all the 
last war, some part of which he was employed as Major of Brigade, 
and had a commission as such from General St. Clair, on the 
expedition under his command in the year 1746. 

May it therefore please your Excellency to lay his case before 
His Majesty that he in his great wisdom may be graciously pleased 
to promote him to the Rank of Major when an opportunity offers, 
all which is humbly submitted. 

To His Excellency, James Abercromby, Esqr., General and 
Commander in Chief of all his Majesty's forces in North America, 
etc., etc., etc. 

The Memorial of Colonel Francis Grant, Commanding his 
Majesty's 42nd Regiment of Foot. 

Humbly sheweth 

That his Majesty having thought proper to augment the said 
Regiment to 1,300 men by adding three additional companies to 
it, and such a body of men being too numerous to be exercised and 
disciplined by one Major only, your memoralist humbly conceives, 
that it would be for the good of his Majesty's service to have 
another Major added, as has been already done to the other two 
Highland Battalions commanded by the Colonels Montgomery and 
Fraser. 

Public Record Office W. O. 1.-1. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 15 

May it therefore please your Excellency to Vay this matter 
before His Majesty that he in his great wisdom may be graciously 
pleased to give such directions thereupon as shall be thought 
necessary, all which is humbly submitted. 

Colo. Grant, commanding His Majesty's 42nd Regiment, and 
Mr. Gordon Graham, a Captain in the same, having each of them 
presented me with a memorial, the contents of which I know to be 
true, I herewith transmit them to your Lordship, to be laid before 
the King, and to know His Royal Pleasure therein. 

Extract from a letter signed James Abercromby to the Right 
Hon. Lord Viscount Barrington, dated New York, Apr. 28, 1758. 

As will be seen later Capt. Graham became Major before hear- 
ing from the King. 

The next dispatch which is of interest and which makes changes 
in the list of Commissioned Officers is as follows: Extract from 
letter signed by James Abercromby to the Right Honorable the 
Lord Viscount Barrington, dated Albany, May 27, 1758. 1 

In the list of the Commissions which I had the honour to 
transmit to your Lordship, by my last letter, you will have 
observed two vacancies in the 42nd Regiment, occasioned by the 
removal of Sir James Cockburn into the 48th which could not be 
filled up at the time my letter went away, as the gentlemen, whom 
it was proposed should purchase those vacancies were then at 
Albany, 2 and their answer not arrived; since that the Lieutenancy 
has been made out in the name of Mr. Patrick Balnevas, and bears 
date the 1st of April; and Mr. Elbert Hering succeeds to the 
Ensigncy, dated the 3rd of the same month." 

Then we have the dispatch just before the battle from Aber- 
crombie to Pitt, dated Camp at Lake George, June 29, 1758, saying: 

"Arrived Fort Edward on the 9th, where Lord Howe was 
encamped with the 42nd, 44th, and 55th Regiments and 4 companies 
of Rangers. Remainder of Regulars were at posts below on Hudson 
River and were working up the stores, etc. On the 17th Lord 
Howe marched to the Brook, half way between Fort Edward and 
the Lake with the 42nd, 44th, and 55th. This Half-way Brook 
was judged a proper post for the first Deposit in a Portage of 15 
miles. 3 After the carriages had made several trips Lord Howe 
advanced to the Lake with the 42nd, 44th, and 55th." 

1 Public record office W:O :!.-!. ,. ... 

2 His last letter had been written from New York April 8th If this 
were an earlier date it might indicate the winter quarters b it at this time 
the army was assembling at Albany for the seasons campaign. It will be 
noted as illustration that the Highlanders quartered at Stamford 1 

Mar 3 h F 3 or further information in regard to Halfway Brook . which i Is , just 
north of the city of Glens Falls, see the "Halfway Brookln W tory, Dy 
-James A. Holden in Vol. VI. of N. Y. State Hist. Assn. proceedings. 



16 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Attached to this letter is a report of troops at Lake George, 
June 29, 1758, and the roll of the 42nd was as follows: 

"10 companies, 1 Lt. Colonel, 1 Major, 8 Captains, 18 Lieu- 
tenants, 7 Ensigns, 1 Chaplain, 1 Adjutant, 1 QuarterM aster, 1 
Surgeon, 2 Mates, 40 Sergeants, 18 Drummers ; Rank and File 981 
fit for duty, 11 sick present, 6 in general hospital, 2 on command, 
1,000 total. 1 drummer and 40 rank and file wanting to complete." 

We find the solution of why there were only 1,000 of the 
Black Watch with the Ticonderoga expedition when its strength 
was known to be 1,300 at that time, in another extract of the 
Report of June 29th from Abercrombie to Pitt: "I have left two 
additional Companies of Lord John Murray's to garrison Fort 
Edward. The other additional company of the 42nd which was 
blown into Antego (Antigua), I hear is arrived at New York, 
which I have ordered up to Albany." 

This is confirmed in more detail in a letter from Sir Robert 
Menzies to Mr. Murray of Strowan, dated Rannock, 6th Sept., 
1758, in which is an extract from a letter received by Menzies from 
"Jamie Stewart."* 

"That, after the additional Companies arrived in Fort Ed- 
ward, the best men were picked out to compleat the Regiment in 
place of the sick and old men that were put in their place. That, 
as Capt. Reid was left behind sick at Albany, Capt. Murray was 
appointed to his company and Reid to the additionals, as Capt. 
Abercrombie was to Capt. Murray's Company. That the additional 
companies, with Captains Sterling, Reid, and Abercrombie, etc., 
were left at Fort Edward, where they had nothing to do but to 
garrison the Fort and divert themselves." 

Everything is now in readiness for the attack on Ticonderogt 
and an army of six thousand three hundred seventy-seven regulars 
and nine thousand thirty-four provincials (Abercrombie to Pitt 
July 12, 1758) embarked at Lake George early on the morning of 
July 5th. There were nine hundred batteaux, a hundred and thirty- 
five whale boats and a large number of heavy flatboats carrying 
the artillery and from front to rear the line was six miles long. 



* Atholl Records page, 444 Vo. III. 




8 

o 
I o> 



>> 

a < 
< i 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 17 

Parkman in his "Montcalm and Wolfe" paints the scene as 
follows: "The spectacle was superb; the brightness of the sum- 
mer day; the romantic beauty of the scenery; the sheen and 
sparkle of those crystal waters; the countless islets, tufted with 
pine, birch, and fir; the bordering mountains, with their green 
summits and sunny crags; the flash of oars and glitter of weapons; 
the banners, the varied uniforms, and the notes of bugle, trumpet, 
bag-pipe, and drum, answered and prolonged by a hundred wood- 
land echoes. 'I never beheld so delightful a prospect/ wrote a 
wounded officer at Albany a fortnight after. 

"Rogers with the Rangers, and Gage with the light infantry, 
led the way in whaleboats, followed by Bradstreet with his corps 
of boatman, armed and drilled as soldiers. Then came the main 
body. The central column of regulars was commanded by Lord 
Howe, his own regiment, the fifty-fifth, in the van, followed by the 
Royal Americans, the twenty-seventh, forty-fourth, forty-sixth, 
and eightieth infantry, and the Highlanders of the forty-second, 
with their major, Duncan Campbell of Inverawe, silent and 
gloomy amid the general cheer, for his soul was dark with fore- 
shadowings of death. With this central column came what are 
described as two floating castles, which were no doubt batteries to 
cover the landing of the troops. On the right hand and the left 
were the provincials, uniformed in blue, regiment after regiment, 
from Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and 
Rhode Island. Behind them all came the batteaux, loaded with 
stores and baggage, and the heavy flatboats that carried the artil- 
lery, while a rear-guard of provincials and regulars closed the long 
procession." 

It will be unnecessary to go into the details of this disastrous 
campaign as it is not only well known to most of you but three 
papers bearing on the subject will be read at this meeting.* Briefly 
the army landed at the foot of Lake George the morning of the 
6th and the afternoon of the same day Lord Howe at the head of 
a Ticonderoga party was killed at the outlet of Trout Brook. This 
is the beginning of the end as Lord Howe was the real head of the 
army. Abercrombie took until the eighth to make up his mind 
what to do and this interim gave the French time to build the 
fatal breastworks across the ridge about one-half mile west of the 
Fort and enabled Levis to arrive with reinforcements. 



* Abercromby's full report to Pitt, under date of July 12, 1758, will be 
found in Mr. Holden's article on Lord Howe. 



18 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

As the breastworks play a most important part in the Battle 
it will perhaps be well to again quote from Parkman who gives a 
most comprehensive description. "The trees that covered the 
ground were hewn down by thousands, the tops lopped off, and 
the trunks piled one upon another to form a massive breastwork. 
The line followed the top of the ridge, along which it zigzagged in 
such a manner that the whole front could be swept by flank-fires 
of musketry and grape. It was so high that nothing could be 
seen over it but the crowns of the soldiers' hats. The upper tier 
was formed of single logs, in which notches were cut to serve as 
loopholes; and in some places sods and bags of sand were piled 
along the top, with narrow spaces to fire through. From the cen- 
tral part of the line the ground sloped away like a natural glacis; 
while at the sides, and especially on the left, it was undulating 
and broken. Over this whole space, to the distance of a musket- 
shot from the works, the forest was cut down, and the trees left 
lying where they fell among the stumps, with tops turned out- 
wards, forming one vast abattis, which, as a Massachusetts officer 
says, looked like a forest laid flat by a hurricane. But the most 
formidable obstruction was immediately along the front of the 
breastworks, where the ground was covered with heavy boughs, 
overlapping and interlaced, with sharpened points bristling into 
the face of the assailant like the quills of a porcupine. As these 
works were all of wood, no vestige of them remains. The earth- 
works now shown to tourists as the lines of Montcalm were begun 
four days after the battle to replace the log breastwork ; and though 
on the same ground are not on the same plan." 

Behind these breastworks the battalions of LaSarre and Lan- 
guedoc were posted on the left under Bourlamaque, the first bat- 
talion of Berry with that of Royal Roussillon in the center under 
Montcalm and those of LaReine, Beam and Guienne on the right 
under Levis. A detachment of volunteers occupied the low grounds 
between the breastworks and the outlet of Lake George and on 
the side toward Lake Champlain were stationed 450 regulars and 
Canadians, about 3,600 in all. 

It is always easy to criticise an event after it has occurred, 
but the result certainly shows that Abercrombie could not have 
planned his campaign more to the advantage of the French. He 
first gave them time to build those formidable breastworks and then 
instead of choosing any one of half a dozen plans which would have 
brought victory, he decided to throw his army unsupported by 
artillery, which was still at Lake George, at the strongest part of 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 19 

the French position, he himself staying in safety at the saw mill 
(about which we heard this afternoon in the able paper read by 
Mr. Delano at the unveiling of the tablet) a mile and a half in 
the rear of his army.* 

The sad result is too well known to dwell on and we pass at 
once to the part played by the Black Wateh. They, with the 55th 
were to have formed the reserve but impatient at being left in the 
rear the Highlanders could not be restrained and were soon in the 
front endeavoring to cut their way through the fallen trees with 
their broadswords. Captain John Campbell, who was one of the 
two soldiers presented to George II in 1743, with a few men, were 
the only ones to force their way over the breastworks and they 
were instantly dispatched with the bayonet. 

Lieut. William Grant of the Regiment writes as follows: 

"The attack began a little past one in the afternoon and about 
two the fire became general on both sides. It was exceedingly heavy 
and without intercession insomuch as the oldest soldier never saw 
so furious and incessant a fire. The fire at Fontenoy was nothing 
to it. I saw both." 

An officer of the 55th regiment, of which Lord Howe had been 
the commander, wrote as follows: 

"With a mixture of esteem, grief and envy, I am penetrated 
by the great loss and immortal glory acquired by the Highlanders 
engaged in the late bloody affair. Impatient for the fray, they 
rushed forward to the entrenchments which many of them actually 
mounted, their intrepidity was rather animated than dampened by 
witnessing their comrades fall on every side. They seemed more 
anxious to avenge the fate of their deceased friends than to avoid 
a like death. In their co-operation we trust soon to give a good 
account of the enemy and of ourselves. There is much harmony 
and friendship between the two regiments." 

Even the French were impressed with the valor of the Black 
Watch as Garneau writes in L'Histoire du Canada. 1 

"The Highlanders above all, under Lord John Murray, covered 
themselves with glory. They formed the head of the troops con- 

This General James Abercrombie must not be confused with Sir RalpH 
Abercrombie who led the Black Watch to victory in Egypt in 11101. 
1 Translation by Bell, Page 539, Vol. I. 



20 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

fronting the Canadians, their light and picturesque costume distin- 
guishing them from all other soldiers amid the flame and smoke. 
This corps lost half of its men and 25 of its officers were killed or 
severely wounded." 

Lossing writes, "The whole army seemed envious to excell 
but the Scotch Highland Regiment of Lord John Murray was fore- 
most in the conflict and suffered the severest loss." 1 

The following letters from Captain Allan Campbell are of 
interest: 

Camp at Lake George, llth July, 1758. 

Dr. Broyr. The 8th of this month we had a hot brush at the 
lines of Ticonderoga where we lost a considerable number of men 
and officers. The officers of your acquentance wounded are Major 
Campbell and his son. Both in their arms, and I hope will do well. 
Captain Stratchur slightly in the breast, Ltt. Archd. Campbell 
Sheriff Badly in the Breast, Lt. John Campbell Glendaruel slightly 
in the arm, Capt. Ltt. John Campbell Duneaves killed, Ltt. Hugh 
Macpherson ditto, Capt. Graham, Duchra, and Broyr. Both 
wounded slightly and several other offrs. of the Regt. but not of 
your acquentance are killed and wounded. 

Our Regt. acquired great glory by their good behaviour of both 
men and officers, tho' we were unsuccessful!. I have the pleasure 
to aquent you that both my nephew George and I eskeaped without 
a scratch, tho' both in the heat of the action. George is a pritty 
Lad: he's now a Ltt. in Coll. Gages Regt. of Lt. Infantry. Your 
son the Major was well about 2 months ago at Philadelphia. We 
are now at the end of Lake George Encampt. I have told you now 
all the news that can occurr to me or that I have time to write you, 
and I thought it my duty to acquent you and my other Broyrs. of 
my being well after a smart action. I have no time to write you 
more being excessively hurried having no Body to assist me in the 
affairs of my Company having my three Ltts. killed or wounded viz. 
Ltt. Balie killed and Ltts. Archd. Campbell and William Grant 
wounded. I'll write you very fully in my nixt. My best wishes to 
my sister, to your family and all our friends, and I am Dr. Bryr, 
your most affec. and Lov. Broyr, while 

Allan Campbell. 

New York, 6th January 1759. 

Dr. Brother, I writt you the llth July in a great hurry after 
our retreat from Ticonderoga to let you know of mine and George's 
welfair, after that unlucky afair, where severall of our friends and 
a great many worthy Fellows suffer'd. Our Regt. lost more than 
any other Corps at the attack of the Lines. We have had killed 

1 Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution. Page 119. Vol. 1. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 21 

and wounded since the beginning of the Campaign 520 (officers 
included) of which about 300 were left dead on the field or have 
dyed of their wounds, and of 37 officers that were present with the 
Regt. that day 11 only came off unhurt, of which number I was 
lucky enough to be one. 

You would certainly hear before now of poor Major Camp- 
bell Inveraw's death, he liv'd about a fortnight after he receiv'd 
his wound, the Doctors thought it necessary that his arm should br 
cut off, and he dyed soon after the operation at Fort Edward, all 
the rest of our wounded officers are quite recover'd except his son, 
Sandy, Jock Campbell Glendaruel, and Archie Shirreff, but they 
are out of all danger, only their cure will be tedious. 

Poor George had a narrow escape the day we landed at the 
French end of the Lake, having had a scratch along the face with 
a musquet Ball. He was in a smart little action that happen'd in 
the woods a mounth afterwards between a detachment of 500 of 
our army under the command of Major Rogers and much the same 
number of Indians French and Canadians, where the latter were 
repulsed with the loss of 100 men, and I assure you his behaviour 
at that affair was much aplauded by his Broyr. officers on their 
return to the Army. 

He's now second oldest Lieut, in General Gage's Regt. of light 
arm'd infantry, for which he's obliged to the late Major Campbell, 
Inveraw ; and as they talk at present of agmenting that corps, he'll 
have a good chance of getting Higher up, and in any event he's 
better off by being so High in that Regt. as they are now an 
Establish'd Corps, than if he had staid in ours, where he could be 
but a young Lieut. His Coll. has a great regard for him, and very 
Deservedly for he's a lad of good morals, a good spirit ,and very 
fit for his Business. He has acted as Adjutant to that Regt. since 
July last, by which he has nothing yet but Treble, there being no 
Adjutant allow'd, and that his Collonel means it for him; if he's 
lucky enough to get that, I think he's very well provided for for 
the time he has served. 

I have advanc'd him Twenty Guineas for which he gave me a 
Bill on you. I hope you'll not Disaprove of my conduct for doing 
it, nor blame him for running so much short, when I explain to you 
the cause of it; its trew he came over very well Riged out, but his 
changing Corps put him under a necessity of Buying new Regi- 
mentals, as these Differ in Colours from the rest of the Army, being 
Brown, besides his expense must be greater upon his first comming 
in among Strangers, and he had the misfortune of being sent a 
recruiting last winter, which really is a misfortune to an officer 



22 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

in this Country unless he is very carfull and happens to be suc- 
cessful, and I belive George lost by it. This I ashure you is truth, 
and when you consider it was owing to these accidents, that he 
could not possibly guard against, I am hopfull you'l easily forgive 
him. I was likewise oblig'd to advance our tinkle Corries' son, 
Colin,, Twenty two Pounds eighteen shillings and tenpence or he 
must have gone naked, having lost all his things at Fort William 
Henry. I have sent both Bills to Brother Robert. George and 
Colin are sent this winter a Recruiting to Pehsilvania. 

I had a letter dated the 30 Novr. from my nephew, the Major, 
from where Fort du Quesne stood, he was then very well. I expect 
dayly to hear from him, he's had as troublesome and Fatigueing 
Campaign of it, as ever any Body had, our Army has been above 
a Month in Winter Quarters befor thers got to Fort du Quesne, 
which the French burnt upon ther near aproach, and an immense 
long march they have to get back to Philadelphia, wher ther Regt. 
is .'to be Quarter's this winter, and where I intend to go and see 
him, when I hear of ther arrival, its about 100 miles from this 
place that our Regt. is now quartere'd in. 

We long much for a Pacquet here having no news from Europe 
for some months, I take the opportunity of writing you now by the 
Kennington Man of War that carries home General Abercrom- 
bie. ***** 

There is no News here at Present. All our Friends in this 
Country are Well. Remember my best wishes to my Sister, and the 
rest of your Family whom may God Almighty bless and I ever am, 
Dr. Brother, your affec. and Lov. Broyr. 

Allan Campbell. 

FOOT NOTE Some of the names in the two preceding- letters from 
Capt. Campbell are interesting because they illustrate the Scottish custom 
of using name of estate rather than the family or given name. This was 
often necessary to distinguish between several of same name. 

Captain Stratchur is Captain John Campbell of Stratchur, there are 
also John Campbells of Duneavis, and of Glendaruel. Archie Sherreff is 
Lieut. Archibald Campbell, son of the Sheriff of Argyle. Duchra is Capt. 
Thomas Graeme of Duchray. George and "the Major" are sons of John 
Campbell of Barcaldine George Campbell was appointed Ensign in the 
42d in 1756, promoted Lieut, in Gage's Regiment 1757, and killed at Havana 
1762. "The Major" was Alexander Campbell, Major in the 77th (Montgom- 
ery Highlanders). Unkle Corries is John Campbell of Corries and his son 
Colin was evidently at the massacre at Fort William Henry in August 

1757. Fort du Quesne was the French fort at what Is now Pittsburgh. 

I also give in full the letter written by Capt. James Murray 
to his brother, Mr. Murray of Strowan, dated Albany, July 19, 

1758, as his description of the country and the events during and 
after the battle lend color to the picture. 1 



1 Atholl Records. Page 438, Vol. 3. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 23 

"My Dear Brother: The last letter I wrote you was dated 
from Fort Edward camp about 18th June. We proceeded on to 
Lake George where Fort William Henry formerly stood which was 
taken and destroyed by the French last year, where we remained 
until the 5th curt, and then the whole army embarked on the lake 
in batteaux that hold 23 men with a month's provisions all the 
artillery stores was likewise embarked, and everything else belong- 
ing to an army. We were divided into brigades. There was in all 
about 5,000 regulars and 12,000 provincials. We had also light 
infantry and rangers who had whale-boats which are the lightest 
and best going boats that can be made. We put off about 8 and got 
fairly into the lake which I took to be about 20 miles long and not 
above two miles at the broadest part of it. There are several small 
islands which are quite covered with wood and all around the lake 
is very hilly and quite covered with woods, as the most part of the 
country is, at least what I have seen on't. 

This lake abounds in fine trout the meat of which is red, 
pearch, suckers and several other sorts of fish. There is also plenty 
of beavers. On the side of the lake there is plenty of deer but I 
have not seen any since I came to the country. Sometimes when 
I have been out on command I have killed rattle snakes about four 
feet long and as thick as the small of one's leg, with 18 rattles, 
which altogether might be about four inches long. They say some 
have twenty or more. They have both teeth and a sting. The 
rattles being at the tail makes them that they can stand up on end 
and spring a short way at one. When touched they make a great 
noise with their rattles. Their bite is not so bad as called for it 
can be easily cured with oil or salt. They smell exactly like a 
goat, rather ranker if possible before they are seized but afterwards 
have almost no smell at all. They make the richest and best soup 
that can be which I eat of and like much. The meat is but insipid. 

The 6th we disembarked at the lower end of the lake. In the 
morning out light infantry and rangers had some skirmishing with 
the French pickets. Lord Howe was killed at the second shot and 
he is very much regretted. There was taken that day about 150 
prisoners, five of whom were officers. They had a great many killed 
so that very few of their pickets escaped which consisted in all 
of about 350. 

The next day being the 7th, we were making preparations to 
invest a fort called Theenderora which is five miles from Lake 
George and is situate on a neck of land that runs into Lake Cham- 
plain. As to the dimensions of that lake I can't say, and marched 



24 NEW YOBK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

within a mile and half of it that evening. The next morning the 
light infantry made the French sentries and small posts retire to 
their entrenchments for the French had an encampment about half 
a cannon shot before their fort, and were entrenched after the 
following manner: They had large cut trees one laid above another 
a man's height and in the outside there was brush and logs for 
about 15 paces from it which made it impossible to force their 
breastworks without cannon which we had not taken up that length 
as then. They were also under cover of the fort or if we could beat 
them out of their trenches, they could have retired pretty safely. 

Between one and two we marched up and attacked the trenches 
and got within twenty paces of them and had as hot a fire for about 
three hours as possibly could be, we all the time seeing but their 
hats and the end of their muskets. About half an hour before we 
were obliged to retire I received a shot through my thigh after 
which I stayed a few minutes but finding if I stayed any longer my 
thigh would turn stiff and losing a great deal of blood I with help 
got into the road and that evening with Capt. Gordon Graham, our 
paymaster, got into a whaleboat and against the next morning got 
to the upper end of Lake George and was transported down here. 
I am confined to my bed but the surgeons say my wound looks as 
well as can be expected, nor is there any sort of danger in it as it 
has only grazed the bone, so I shall be well soon again. I am in 
perfect good health, have a good appetite and sleep tolerably well. 

Our regiment has suffered much. There was the captain, 
lieutenant and six subalterns killed on the spot and since the major 
and the lieutenant have died of their wounds. The colonel, four 
captains, and twelve subalterns are wounded. 180 men killed and 
280 wounded. None of the other regiments' losses were near so 
great. Capt. Stewart was not touched, Capt. Sterling nor Farqu- 
harson were not there so are well, but Lieut. Farquharson's younger 
brother was killed. Lieut. David Mills, my lieutenant, is not ill 
wounded and is pretty well, so if you would inform his father-in- 
law, Mr. Hamilton, of Hutcheson, who stays near Glasgow, you 
would oblige me. Neil Stewart at Perth knows him. 

I received a letter from Lord John 15th May letting me know 
you are all well which gave me a great deal of pleasure but it would 
much more so to hear from some of you for it is very long since I 
had that satisfaction, the last being at Ireland, for Lord John wrote 
me no particulars. 

Offer my humble duty to my dear mother and elsewhere due 
and best love to dear Lady Charlotte, Lady Sinclair, George, Char- 
lotte and Invercauld, and my best blessing attend all the young 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 25 

ones. My kind compliments to Shusy Moray and tell her I had her 
hair about my neck when I received my wound which might have 
probably gone to my heart if it had not been wounded already. 
I am ever your most effectionate brother, 

James Murray. 

Thus had the army which landed so proudly two days before 
been disastrously repulsed, with a loss in killed and wounded and 
missing of nineteen hundred and forty-four officers and men. In 
his report of July 12, 1758, Abercrombie gives the casualty of the 
42nd as follows: 

"Killed Capt. Lt. John Campbell; Lts. George Farquharson, 
Hugh McPherson, | William Bailey, (John Sutherland; Ensigns Peter 
Stewart and George Rattray. 

Wounded Major Duncan Campbell; Captains Gordon Gra- 
ham, Thomas Graeme, John Campbell, James Stewart, James Mur- 
ray; Lieutenants William -Grant, Robert Gray, John Campbell, 
James Grant, John Graham, Alexander Campbell, Alexander Mcln- 
tosh, Archibald Campbell, David Mill,* Patrick Balnevis; Ensigns 
John Smith and Peter Grant. 

Summary 1 major wounded, captains 1 killed, 4 wounded; 
lieutenants 4 killed, 11 wounded; ensigns 2 killed, 2 wounded; 
adjutants 1 wounded; quarter master 1 wounded; sergeants 6 killed, 
13 wounded, rank and file 190 killed, 265 wounded." 

Stewart of Garth writes as follows: 

"Of these the 42nd regiment had 8 officers, 9 Serjeants, and 
297 men killed, and 17 officers, 10 Serjeants, and 306 soldiers 
wounded. The officers were, Major Duncan Campbell of Inverawe, 
Captain John Campbell, Lieutenants George Farquharson, Hugh 
McPherson, William Baillie, and John Sutherland; Ensigns Pat- 
rick Stewart of Bonskied and George Rattray killed; Captains 
Gordon Graham, Thomas Graham of Duchray, John Campbell of 
Strachur, James Stewart of Urrad, James Murray (afterward Gen- 
eral) ; Lieutenants James Grant, Robert Gray, John Campbell, 
William Grant, John Graham, brother of Duchray, Alexander 
Campbell, Alexander Mackintosh, Archibald Campbell, David 
Miller, Patrick Balneaves; and Ensigns John Smith and Peter 
Grant, wounded." 



* This name is given in various places as MILJj, MILLS, MILDER and 
MILNE. The Duke of Atholl is authority for the statement t 
correct. 



26 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Capt. James Murray writes from Albany 17th August, 1758:' 
"As I observed in my last, our regiment has suffered greatly. The 
Major has since died of his wounds, Sandy Farquharson has got 
his lieutenancy by seniority which one would not have thought that 
the youngest ensign of the additionals would have been so soon a 
lieutenant. I am recovering pretty well and can walk about al- 
though I am much pained in my knee but hope will be able to 
soon joint the regiment. 

Capt. James Stewart writes 14th July from Lake George:' 
"That all the Captains were wounded, less or more, excepting 
Captains McNeil and Allan Campbell, that Major Campbell got his 
right arm wounded, but not dangerous and his son, Lieutenant 
Alexander Campbell had his arm broke betwixt the elbow and 
shoulder, but he was in a good way." 

Parkman states that Lt. Alexander Campbell was severely 
wounded but reached Scotland alive and died in Glasgow. 3 

Abercrombie reports to Pitt from Lake George, Aug. 19, 1758; 
"Major Duncan Campbell of the 42nd who was wounded in the 
arm at the battle on the 8th was obliged to have it cut off and died 
soon thereafter." 

It would seem therefore that the wounds of Major Campbell 
and his son were not necessarily fatal and that modern surgery 
would have cured them. The following however, taken from Gar- 
neau's L'Histoire du Canada might explain the unexpected mor- 
tality. "Scarcely any of the wounded Highlanders ever recovered 
and even those sent home as invalids; their sores cankered, owing 
to the broken glass, ragged bits of metal, etc., used by the Cana- 
dians instead of shot." 5 

Or this extract from letter of Brig. General James Wolfe to 
Lord George Sackville: 

Halifax 24" May 1758. 

"Some of the Regiments of this Army have 300 or 400 men eat 
up with the Scurvey. All of them that are wounded or hurt by any 
accident run great risks of their lives from the corrupted state of 
the blood." 



1. Atholl Records, p. 444, Vol. III. 

2. Atholl Records, p. 443, Vol. III. 

3. Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 435, Vol. II. 

4. Public Record Office, C.O.5. 50. 

5. Translation by Bell, page 539, Vol. I. 




Original headstone at Grave of Major Duncan Campbell of Inverawe. 
(Jane McCrea lot in Union Cemetery, between Fort Fdward and Hudson Falls 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 27 

"The curious part of the barbarity is that the scoundrels of 
Contractors can afford the fresh meat in many places and circum- 
stances as cheap as the salt." 

Abercrombie states in his report of July 12, 1758, "I sent the 
wounded officers and the men that could be moved to Fort Edward 
and Albany." 

Major Campbell was sent to Fort Edward and upon his death 
nine days after the battle he was buried in the family lot of the 
Gilchrists, in the old cemetery at Fort Edward. The body was 
moved to the Gilchrist lot in the new Union cemetery between 
Sandy Hill and Fort Edward in 1871, and in 1920 was moved 
again to the Jane McCrea lot in the same cemetery. The original 
stone may still be seen and bears the inscription: "Here Lyes the 
body of Duncan Campbell of Inversaw, Esqr Major to The old 
Highland Regt. Aged 55 Years. Who died The 17th July, 1758, 
of wounds he received in the attack of the retrenchments of Ticon- 
deroga or Carillon, 8th July, 1758." 

Stewart of Garth says, "The old Highland Regiment having 
suffered so severely * * * * they were not employed again that 
year." 

In the N. Y. Colonial Records, however, we find that some 
regulars of the 42nd and 6th Regts. amounting to 155 men (prob- 
ably one company of each) were with Bradstreet in his exposition 
against Fort Frontenac. 1 

In Abercrombie's report of Aug. 19, 1758, he states that part 
of the additional companies of the 42nd were sent to reinforce 
Brig. General Provost at Fort Edward and that one company 
of the 42nd and some of the recovering men were stationed at 
Albany. From this it might be inferred that the only part of the 
Black Watch fit for duty were the three additional companies which 
had not been in the battle of July 8th and it is possible that the 
one company of the 42nd that had been blown out of its course to 
Antigua and had not arrived at New York until June did not get 
further north than Albany. The winter quarters of the 42nd for 
1758 were at New York. (Abercrombie to Pitt, No. 25, 1758. )' 

The official title is now changed to the "42nd or Royal Regi- 



1. N. Y. Col. manuscript O'Callagfhan's, p. 827, Vol. 10. 

2. Public Record Office C. O. 5: 50. 



28 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

ment of foot," and the regiment is commonly called the Royal 
Highlanders. It has erroneously been stated that the Black Watch 
was granted this honor of being a "Royal" regiment because of its 
gallantry at Ticonderoga, but it is all the more to its credit that it 
had earned this distinction before the battle at Ticonderoga. The 
title was granted by special warrant dated July 22, 1758, while the 
news of the defeat did not reach London until the arrival of 
Abercrombie's aid de camp with dispatches Aug. 20, 1758. 

A copy of the warrant is as follows: 
George R 

We being desirous to distinguish Our Forty Second Regiment 
of Foot with some mark of Our Royal favor, Our Will and Pleas- 
ure therefore is, and we do hereby direct, that from henceforth 
Our said regiment be called, and distinguished by the title and 
name of Our Forty-Second, or Royal Highland Regiment of Foot, 
in all commissions, orders, and writings, that shall hereafter be 
made out, or issued for and concerning the said regiment. Given 
at Our Court at Kensington this 22nd day of July 1758, in the 
thirty second year of Our reign. By His Majesty's command. 

(Signed) BARRINGTON. 

The vacancies occasioned in the 42nd were filled up in regular 
succession and the seven companies which had been ordered at the 
same time as the change of title were immediately recruited. These 
were completed in three months and embodied at Perth, October 
1758, each company being 120 men strong, all with few exceptions 
Highlanders and hardy and temperate in their habits. (Lord John 
Murray's orders were preemptory that none but Highlanders be 
taken, but a few O'Donnels, O'Lachlans and O'Briens passed muster 
as Mac Donnels, MacLachlans and Mac Briars.) 

These seven companies with the three additional companies 
raised in 1757 were formed into a Second Battalion. The officers 
appointed to the seven new companies were Robert Anstruther, 
who was senior captain and served as Major, Francis MacLean, 
Alexander Sinclair, John Stewart of Stenton, William Murray of 
Lintrose, Archibald Campbell, Alexander Reid, and Robert Arbuth- 
not, to be captains; Alexander MacLean, George Grant, George 
Sinclair, Gordon Clunes, Adam Stewart, John Robertson, son of 
Lude, John Grant, James Fraser, George Leslie, John Campbell* 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 29 

Alexander Stewart, Duncan Richardson and Robert Robertson, to 
be lieutenants and Patrick Sinclair, John Macintosh, James Mac- 
Duff, Thomas Fletcher, Alexander Donaldson, William MacLean, 
and William Brown, to be ensigns. 

The seven new companies embarked for the West Indies where 
they joined with the Old Bluffs, Kings, 6th, 63rd, 64th, 800 marines 
and a detachment of artillery amounting in all to 5,560 men un- 
der the command of Major Generals Hopson and Barrington and 
of Brigadier Generals Haldane, Armiger, Trapaud and Clavering, 
in an exposition against Martinique and Gaudaloupe. This resulted 
in the capture of Gaudaloupe but was not altogether a success 
and a great many men were lost by fever and sickness. Of the 
Royal Highlanders Ensign MacLean was killed, Lieutenants Mac- 
Lean, Leslie, Sinclair and Robertson were wounded, and Major 
Anstruther and Captain Arbuthnot died of the fever. One hundred 
and six privates were killed, wounded or died of disease. 

This was a severe initiation for the new recruits who had been 
herding sheep on their native hills nine months before, but as has 
always been the case with the Black Watch they acquitted them- 
selves with distinction. The seven companies were then embarked 
for New York to join the First Battalion where they arrived in 
July. They just missed being at the capture of Ticonderoga. Major 
Gordon Graham was ordered at the end of July by General Am- 
herst then at Crown Point to take command of the seven companies 
and to march them up to Oswego. In August they were ordered to 
join the First Battalion, Capt. Stewart with 150 men being left at 
Oswego and the First and Second Battalions, now united, served 
together for the rest of the campaign. 

We will now return to the Veterans of the previous year. 
After wintering in New York (or on Long Island, as another 
authority states) the old Black Watch now the first Battalion of 
the Royal Highlanders, recruited again to its full strength and the 
three additional companies now a part of the Second Battalion, 
joined Amherst at Fort Edward in Jnne, 1759.* Col. Grant of the 
42nd with the Royal Highlanders and light infantry of the army 

See Appendix for extracts from Commissary Wilsons Orderly Book 
for record of daily service of Black Watch in Ticonderoga and Crown Point 
campaign. 



30 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

moved forward to Lake George the 20th and the main part of the 
army followed on the 21st. For five years now Lake George had 
been the annual mustering place of armies. 

The campaign this season comprehended three very important 
enterprises Wolfe was to attack Quebec from Lower Canada, 
Prideaux was to proceed against Niagara, and Amherst, now Com- 
mander in Chief and successor of General Abercrombie, was to 
drive the French from Lake Champlain and if possible join Wolfe 
on the St. Lawrence. 

The army under Amherst consisted of the Royals, 17th, 27th, 
Royal Highlanders, two battalions of the 55th, Montgomery's 
Highlanders, nine battalions of Provincials, and a battalion of 
light infantry and a body of Rangers and Indians with a detach- 
ment of artillery. When joined by the 2d battalion of the Royal 
Americans from the West Indies, this army amounted to 14,500 
men. 

Major Alexander Campbell of the 77th writes from Fort 
Edward, June 19th, 1759: 

"Our General is beloved by his soldiers, Honoured and Esteem'd 
by his officers, Carful of mens lives and healths, in short he is the 
man I would choose to serve under of any I know in the service. 
Our Regiment are healthy and in High spirits as are the whole 
army, and I hope we soon will stricke a stroke that will bring 
credite and Glory to our General and Army and Satisfaction to 
our Country and friends." 

Amherst never remained long in one place without building a 
fort. Fortified places were built at intervals of three or four 
miles along the road to Fort Edward and especially at the station 
called Halfway Brook, while for the whole distance a broad belt 
of wood on both sides was cut down and burned to deprive a 
skulking enemy of cover. At Lake George he started a fort, now 
called Fort George, the ruins of which are in the Lake George 
Battle Ground Park of which this Association is custodian. 

July 21st, 1759, Lake George again witnessed a military 
pageant as the army embarked for its second attack on Fort Ticon- 
deroga. At daylight they landed, beat back a French detachment 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 31 

and marched by the portage road to the sawmill. There was little 
resistance and the army marched to the former line of entrench- 
ments which had proved so fatal to Abercrombie. These had been 
reconstructed partly of earth and partly of logs, and as the French 
made no attempt at their defence the English encamped along their 
front and found them excellent shelter from the cannon of the fort. 
It is the general impression that the French retreated with only 
faint resistance and that there was hardly a shot fired at the 
second attempt to capture Fort Carrillon but the following letter 
from Capt. Murray would correct this impression: 

"Camp at the Lines of Burning Theanderoga, 27 July, 1758. 

My Dear Brother: I write you these few lines to acquaint you 
that I am in perfect good health and that the army landed at this 
end of the lake the 22nd, invested the Fort the 23rd and was very 
buisy carying on the worcks till the 26th in the night, at which time 
we had three batteries ready to open, when the enemy abbandoned 
and set fire to the fort. During the time that the enemy remained 
they could not keep a hotter fire, for I dare say that fired ten 
thousand cannon shott and five hundred bombs and I don't believe 
there has been forty men killed and wounded during that hott fire, 
altho' all the Bombs fell in different parts among us and that we 
were nigh point blank of the cannon shott but the line that had 
been of so much hurt to us last year saved our men this. 

Your most afft. Brother, James Murray." 

I also add Amherst's report to Governor James DeLancey: 

Camp at Ticonderoga 27th July 175. 

Sir: 

On Saturday morning last I embarked with the army at Lake 
George, the next day landed without opposition and proceeded to 
the saw mills, and took post on the commanding grounds, meeting 
only a trifling opposition from the enemy. We lay on our arms all 
night and early on the 23rd we continued our march to the ground 
which I took possession of in the forenoon, the enemy having 
abandoned the lines without destroying them, first having carried 
off their effects as well as sent away the greatest part of their 
troops. As soon as I was set down before the place and after having 
reconnoitered it, I ordered the trenches to be opened and batteries 
to be made, which were finished last night, and were to have opened 
at break of day, but the enemy did not think proper to wait till 
then, having about ten of the clock yesterday evening blown up a 

Atholl Record, p. 452, Vol. III. 



32 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

part of the Fort, and made their escape all to about 20 deserters. 
Our loss considering the fire we sustained is inconsiderable. We 
have only two officers killed, vis. Colonel Townshend, Deputy Adju- 
tant General and Ensign Harrison of late Forbe's. 

Bourlamaque had on receipt of orders from Vandreuil retired 
down Lake Champlain leaving four hundred men under Hebecourt 
to defend the fort as long as possible and then to abandon Ticon- 
deroga and later when pressed Crown Point and to retreat to Isle- 
oux-Noix at the outlet of Lake Champlain, where defense was to be 
made to the last extremity. When the English battery was ready 
to open fire Hebecourt saw that further resistance was useless and 
lighting a slow match to the magazine the French escaped down the 
lake in their boats and a few hours later an explosion which hurled 
one bastion of old Fort Carrillon skyward shook the promontory. 
Thus did French Carillon become English Ticonderoga and "Ticon- 
deroga 1758-9" should be among the battle honors to be borne on 
the colors of the Black Watch. It is true that these honorary 
distinctions are awarded by the King only in case of victory but 
Ticonderoga 1758-9 would certainly be as much a victory as "South 
Africa 1899-1902," which has been granted. South Africa was not 
all victory and the Black Watch suffered at Magersfontein as it 
did at Ticonderoga under Abercrombie. 

The length of time elapsed since the battle would also be no 
objection to the honor being now granted as it was not until 1910, 
two and one half centuries later that the armies that upheld 
British honor on the Coast of Morocco were authorized to bear 
"Tangier 1662-1680" on their colors and appointments. 

Ticonderoga is the one place on the American continent where 
Great Britain and France, Canada and the United States can all 
unite on one common ground. The Yankees and British can meet 
here and clasp hands over the time when they once fought together 
and there is not even a sectional feeling which detracts from the 
unanimity. The North, South, East and West of the United States 
all join with equal fervor. Each nation had its defeats here at 
different times but each also had its victories. Therefore there 
is no battle honor which could be conferred on any British regiment 
that would please more people of different nations than "Ticon- 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 33 

deroga 1758-9." The fact that there is at present in the village of 
Ticonderoga a public library and historical building dedicated to 
a British Regiment, even though this same regiment in its line of 
duty fought against us in a later war, is sufficient proof that we 
consider Ticonderoga of international history and above matters 
of local prejudice. 

The rest of the story is soon told. Crown Point was captured 
and the army was to have moved forward to Isle oux-Noix and to 
the St. Lawrence but a succession of storms so delayed operations 
that further active movements were abandoned for the remainder 
of the season. Amherst profiting by the fatal precipitation of his 
predecessor was slow but sure and in this campaign was successful 
in every enterprise that he undertook. 

After the capture of Crown Point the army under Amherst 
was mainly employed in building operations on Lake Champlain, 
Fort Amherst at Crown Point and Fort Ticonderoga in place of 
old Fort Carrillon at Ticonderoga. The Black Watch was stationed 
at Crown Point and helped to build Fort Amherst. In November, 
they went into camp for the winter and in his report of "Garrisons 
and Winter Quarters of His Majesty's forces in North America 
under the command of His Excellency, Major General Amherst, 
Headquarters at New York, 15 Dec., 1759" in the Public Record 
Office, the stations of the Black Watch were as follows: 1st 
Battalion Royal Highland Regiment, 1 company Halfway Brook, 
5 companies Fort Edward, 1 company Fort Miller, 1 company 
Saratoga, 1 company Stillwater and 1 company Halfmoon, 2d 
Battalion Royal Highland Regiment, Albany, one Battalion of 
the Inniskilling (27th Foot) and two companies of the Rangers 
were left at Crown Point, six companies Late Brig. Gen'l Forbe's 
(17th Foot) at Ticonderoga, and four companies 17th Foot at Fort 
George. The following season (1760) the Black Watch was with 
Amherst at the capture of Montreal which was the end of the 
French domain on the American Continent. 

lir 

In 1761 the Black Watch with ten regiments embarked for 
Barbadoes there to join an armament against Martinique and 
Havana. After the surrender of Havana, the first battalion of the 
42nd and Montgomery's Highlanders embarked for New York 



34 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

which they reached in the end of October, 1762. Before leaving 
Cuba most of the second battalion of the 42nd fit for service were 
consolidated with the first, and the remainder shipped to Scotland 
where they were reduced the following year. 

The Black Watch was stationed at Albany until the summer 
of 1763, when they, with a detachment of Montgomery's High- 
landers and another of the 60th, under command of Col. Henry 
Boquet were sent to the relief of Fort Pitt then besieged by the 
Indians. The 42nd passed the winter at Fort Pitt and during the 
summer of 1764, eight companies were sent with the army of 
Boquet against the Ohio Indians. After subduing the Indians 
they returned to Fort Pitt, January 1765. The regiment remained 
in Pennsylvania until the month of July, 1767, when it embarked 
at Philadalphia for Ireland. Such of the men who preferred to 
remain in America were permitted to join other regiments. These 
volunteers were so numerous that along with those who had been 
previously sent home disabled and others discharged and settled in 
America, the regiment that returned was very small in proportion 
to that which had left Scotland. 

Let us now turn our attention to Major Duncan Campbell as 
not only would no sketch of the Black Watch of Ticonderoga be 
complete without the legend with which his name is associated, but 
we are perhaps more interested in him than any other officer of 
the Regiment of that time because he lies buried in the cemetry 
midway between Hudson Falls (formerly Sandy Hill) and Fort 
Edward. The other officers and men who were killed July 8, 1758, 
were doubtless buried on the field of battle and if the graves were 
ever marked, these marks have long since been destroyed. 

No ghost story is more widely known or better authenticated 
than that of Duncan Campbell of Inverawe. It has been made the 
subject of an address before this Association by the late Robert O. 
Bascom at the meeting of July 30, 1901, and has been repeated in 
many forms and in various publications but it will bear still one 
more repetition. The following is taken from Parkman's "Montcalm 
and Wolfe" and is the story as was told by Dean Stanley and 
endorsed by the family of the hero of the tale: 




AT INVERAWE 

Old Inverawe House from the River Awe with Ben Cruachan in the 
background. 

View from the West. X marks the window of the Ghost Room. 
Bridge over the Awe built by Captain William Piman about 1756 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 35 

"The ancient castle of Inverawe stands by the banks of the 
Awe, in the midst of the wild and picturesque scenery of the West- 
tern Highlands. Late one evening, before the middle of the last 
century, as the laird, Duncan Campbell, sat alone in the old hall, 
there was a loud knocking at the gate; and, opening it, he saw a 
stranger, with torn clothing and kilt besmeared with blood, who in 
a breathless voice begged for asylum. He went on to say that he 
had killed a man in a fray, and that the pursuers were at his heels. 
Campbell promised to shelter him. "Swear on your dirk!"* said 
the stranger; and Campbell swore. He then led him to a secret 
recess in, the depths of the castle. Scarcely was he hidden when 
again there was a loud knocking at the gate, and two armed men 
appeared. "Your cousin Donald has been murdered, and we are 
looking for the murderer!" Campbell, remembering his oath, pro- 
fessed to have no knowlodge of the fugitive; and the men went on 
their way. The laird, in great agitation, lay down to rest in a large 
dark room where at length he fell asleep. Waking suddenly in 
bewilderment and terror, he saw the ghost of the murdered Donald 
standing by his bedside, and heard a hollow voice pronounce the 
words: "Inverawe! Inverawe! blood has been shed. Shield not the 
murderer." In the morning Campbell went to the hiding place 
of the guilty man and told him that he could harbor him no longer. 
"You have sworn on your dirk" he replied; and the laird of In- 
verawe, greatly perplexed and troubled, made a compromise be- 
tween conflicting duties, promised not to betray his guest, led him 
to the neighboring mountain (Ben Cruachan) and hid him in a cave. 

In the next night, as he lay tossing in feverish slumbers, the 
same stern voice awoke him, the ghost of his cousin Donald stood 
again at his bedside, and again he heard the same appalling words: 
"Inverawe! Inverawe! blood has been shed. Shield not the mur- 
derer!" At break of day he hastened, in strange agitation, to the 
cave; but it was empty, the stranger had gone. At night, as he 
strove in vain to sleep, the vision appeared once more, ghastly pale, 



* The oath of the Campbells of Inverawe was by Ben Cruachan. 

Bibliography of the Legend of Duncan Campbell of Inverawe. 

A. P. Stanley, "Inverawe and Ticonderoga," Eraser's Magazine, <- 
1880 

'Robert Louis Stevenson, poem on "Ticonderoga," Scribner's Magazine, 
December, 1887. 

Francis Parkman, Appendix G. "Montcalm and Wolfe," and "Historical 
Handbook of the Northern Tour," Boston, 1885. _. , TT 

Robert O. Bascom, "New York State Historical Proceedings, vol. 11., 
"Fort Edward Book," pages 80-88. 

C. F. Gordon Gumming in the Atlantic Monthly, September, 1884. 

W. Max Reid, "Lake George and Lake Champlam 

Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, "Tales of the Highlands. 

Winsor's Critical and Narrative History of the United btates 

Lord Archibald Campbell, "Records of Argyle, " William Blackwood & 
Sons, 1885. 

"The Magazine of History," July, 1906. 

"Book of Dreams and Ghosts," Longman's, 1897. 



36 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

but lees stern of aspect than before. "Farewell, Inverawe!" it said; 
"Farewell, till we meet at TICONDEROGA!" 

The strange name dwelt in Campbell's memory. He had 
joined the Black Watch, or Forty-Second Regiment, then employed 
in keeping order in the turbulent Highlands. In time he became 
its major; and, a year or two after the war broke out, he went with 
it to America. Here, to his horror, he learned that it was ordered 
to the attack of Ticonderoga. His story was well known among 
his brother officers. They combined among themselves to disarm 
his fears; and when they reached the fatal spot they told him on 
the eve of the battle, "This is not Ticonderoga; we are not there 
yet; this is Fort George." 1 But in the morning he came to them 
with haggard looks. "I have seen him! You have deceived me! 
He came to my tent last night! This is Ticonderoga! I shall die 
today!" and his prediction was fulfilled." 

As will be seen by the preceding pages, Inverawe lived nine 
days after the battle and was not even mortally wounded if it had 
been possible in those times to have had antiseptic treatment, but 
the real point of the legend is that he had been warned of Ticon- 
deroga when he did not know there was such a place, years before 
there was any prospect of his being sent there and when Ticonder- 
oga was only the Indian name for a point of land on a lake in the 
wilderness of a far off continent. 

To one interested no place could be more fascinating than old 
Inverawe 2 everything connected with it breathes of legend and 
romance and naturally this was one of the first places visited in 
our Black Watch pilgrimage last summer. Taynuilt, the railroad 
station nearest Inverawe is a small village across the Awe and 
about a mile away as the crow flies, but to drive to our destination, 
one must follow the road two miles up the River to the old bridge 
which was being built at the time that the Major left for the war 
in America in 1756. The builder was Captain William Pitman 
apparently a good friend of Duncan of Inverawe as he charged him 
with the safe keeping during his absence of his daughter Janet and 
his favorite dog. History does not record what happened to the 
dog but the Captain married the daughter and in time Inverawe 
became her property. 



1. More probably Fort Carrillon. 

2. Inver means "the mouth of," therefore the mouth of the River Awe. 




b 

g 

.a 

3 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEEOGA 37 

After crossing the Awe the road turns down the north side of 
the River and winds through a magnificent park, some of the trees 
of which must certainly have been there before the Major's time. 
This is all the more remarkable because with the exception of the 
parks of the private estates, Scotland is nearly a treeless country 
and even the mountains and wild land which with us would be 
covered with forests, have there only grass and heather. Then at the 
end of a delightful four mile drive was old Inverawe house and a 
most cordial and hospitable welcome from its present owner. 

The old house has had many additions in the past one hundred 
and fifty years but the entrance hall and the main part of the 
building and particularly the room where Duncan Campbell saw 
the ghost, are still very much as they were in his time. We en- 
deavored to learn as much as possible of the family history of the 
Campbells of Inverawe, but like the records of the Black Watch 
of that time, there was in 1910, little left but tradition. 

The Campbells of Inverawe 

Twenty years have passed since the account of the Black 
Watch at Ticonderoga as written for the 1910 meeting of the New 
York State Historical Association was published, and while we 
regret that very little can be added, we are pleased to say that 
few corrections have had to be made in the story as then told. 
It was thought that the records of the Regiment of the 18th Cen- 
tury were discovered in 1913 among the military manuscripts in 
the Royal United Service Institution, but while they purported 
to be the original records, careful examination disclosed that they 
had been written early in the nineteenth century so nothing new 
was learned of the Regiment of the Ticonderoga period. The pre- 
ceding pages therefore are practically unchanged. 

The part, however, about the family history of Major Duncan 
Campbell of Inverawe has been entirely rewritten. We are in- 
debted for this additional information to the descendants of Alex- 
ander, a brother of Duncan of Inverawe, to the late Major Sir 
Duncan Campbell of Barcaldine, to the late Captain Douglas 
Wimberly, and others. No one feature of the Black Watch at 
Ticonderoga has been of such general interest as the ghost story 
of its Major, Duncan Campbell of Inverawe, and the straightening 



38 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

out of the family puzzle which was such a mystery in 1910 has 
been a fascinating study. 

The Major's memory has been honored recently by two cele- 
brations. In 1920 when his bones were moved to the Jane McCrea 
enclosure, just inside the main gate of the Union Cemetery between 
Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, where his ancient tombstone now 
has the protection of a high iron fence, and in 1925 when a monu- 
ment to the Black Watch and its Major was unveiled at Fort 
Ticonderoga. Both occasions were under the auspices of the St. 
Andrews Society of Scots of Glens Falls and vicinity, and the New 
York State Historical Association. 

Of all the new material which has been found since 1910 none 
is so important or so interesting as the following letter from Major 
Duncan Campbell of Inverawe: 

Albany, 14th March, 1758. 
Dear Sir, 

I received your letter from Inveraw of the 25th November and 
the first from you since we parted, tho I have been informed by 
letters that come to hand, of your writing formerly. The State you 
sent me of my affairs is not very agreeable nor encouraging for 
me to make a retreat that I had in view, and in a little time I 
believe might be in my power but I am not disappointed; and 
notwithstanding I shall do all in my power to assist you. I am 
sorry that no other scheme of living can be accomplished upon 
the fund, than the one fixed on; to me it gives uneasinefs of minde, 
tho I'm sensible the consequence may be worse if it is not followed, 
and therefore bear it with concern. I don't choose to mention my 
reasons or enter upon particulars as letters from this part of the 
world to yours are lyable to inspection and many accidents. I 
see a separation must be that will expose them to the disrespect 
and ridicule of many; coud they live together in the way proposed 
it might prevent much of that but I can't hope or expect it from 
what I know. 

As to my advice or directions with regard to any plan you, 
and my other freinds, to whom I fear I have given much trouble 
and to whom in any event I shall rekon myself oblig'd there is no 
sort of use for them, you are best judges, and as I am well satisfied 
that everything will be don and ordered for the best, I shall be 
as satisfied with any consequence. I am glade you think of raising 
nurseries and planting, I sent from this Country to be forwarded 
by Mr. Gatty from Belfast two Barrels of the different kindes of 




M) -H 

3 a 

5 

.S w 

1 5 

s S? 

I I 

0> rH 

cc 8 
o 

ri O 






xj a; 
o a, 



O g 

W "S 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 39 

Timber tree seeds &c. but I doubt they will be too late excepting 
the Pines which seed will do when two year old. 

Your letter came a few days ago by an advice Ship of War, 
which superceeded My Lord Loudoun in the Command and General 
Abercrombie appointed in his place, with many other changes and 
promotions in our Military affairs in this Continent, how far they 
may change our Luck I shall not pretend to judge, but we have 
need of some sort of medicine for that end. We have a prospect 
of a very warm and vigorous campaign, and I hope it will be suc- 
cefsful. Our Regiment is appointed for the Lewisburgh Expedition, 
but as we are so far up in the Country where the Generall is to 
have his department and opperations it is yet uncertain but he may 
keep us with him; we are all in very good health and compleat for 
service. 

I cannot yet know what remittance I can make for this year, 
some I will and shall, sometime before we take the field or the 
midle of May. To prevent a relaps of my last years companion 
I travelled to the Southard during the severity of the winter to N. 
York and Philadelfia &c. which have had the desyrd effect and 
I'm now as chois as ever, but it will not enlarge the remittance. 

I have had no letter from Sandy Campbell since Aprile last, 
Nor from Jesie since July, I received one from Mr. Richardson 
with yours which I shall answer by next Pacquett and tell him so 
with my compliments. Lykways please tell Peter Campbell that 
his letter came at the same time, and that as Adam Fisher is here 
I had ane opportunity of enquiring about his son who is at present 
out as master, not Capt. of a Privateer there was no such prizes 
or Fortoune as Peter believed what may be now I know not but 
there is no great prospect of it. This is the only letter I write 
by the first Pacquett, so that you may communicate it to my 
friends as a proof of my being well and youll in the same course 
make my compliments to them all. 

I'm sorry that Captain Campbell should make objections to 
the payment of his Bill; he brought me 3 for which I cleared 
him all his charge and gav at that time 20 guineas over for 
his own trouble expense this he knows and will appear by 
my which you can see; this indeed I thought suitable 

any expense he coud incur in Mull and that it my power to 

give him or not the raising of an rather than have any 

difference about it let h what I had allowed me by the 

Regiment which was 3 per man for the first two years and two 
guineas for the remaining years that at a medium or the full as 
you please but I hope he'll allow interest upon what Ballance may 



40 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

be due by him upon such an amot from the time it fell due April 
46 when he went to the Regt. 

I am, 

My dear Sir, 

i- Your affect, humble servant. 

Dun. Campbell. 

To 

John Campbell of Cloichombie Esqr. 
Inveraray, 

North Brittain. 
(edge of letter torn off hence gaps) (J.FC.) 

The letter bears the Inverawe arms on seal and is endorsed, 
probably by the addressee "14th March 1758, from Inveraw con- 
cerning his familie and affairs and Lieut. Collonel Dugd. Camp- 
bell's Bill." 

This letter will bear reading and re-reading. The first 
and to the writer the most important part of the letter was 
some financial and family problem. Unfortunately his guarded 
and cryptic message caused by the fear that the letter might 
be opened by another than the addressee will perhaps leave 
it always an unsolved mystery. It would be interesting to 
know what success attended the planting of the two barrels 
of timber seed. His guess that the Black Watch might be used 
in the Ticonderoga campaign rather than the Lewisburgh as plan- 
ned, proved correct. It would be interesting to know what the 
malady of the previous winter was, to prevent a relapse of which 
it had been necessary to travel to the Southard. The letter closes 
with another financial problem. If he means that he was allowed 
ten or fifteen dollars per man for the thousand men in the Regiment, 
that would be a very sizable income for those days and the bill 
must have been a large one. The allowance, however, might have 
been for recruits secured or some other regimental activity. But 
aside from the interesting contents of this letter its real value is 
that it gives an opportunity to learn something of the character of 
its writer. One can read between the lines that Duncan of Inver- 
awe was a reserved man of a strong but a quiet, kindly nature, he 
would suffer loss himself rather than make trouble for others, and 
after having done his best was willing to take whatever came 
without complaint. It quite matches the Inverawe of the ghost 
story who promised to protect a fugitive and then stood by his 




d 

a 

* "rt 



a 



T3 C O C 

10 rj ?s ' 



gflls 
*ii>il.s 



egrn fc. <w 



OO oj O; g *OJ 

rD g ^ rt * 

~ > g 03 bOJ 

1^ hlgH^ C 

j>^_, k c p rH CpQ 



H | ** 
c x o 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 41 

oath even though the refugee was the murderer of his cousin. The 
reader of this letter can not help but feel drawn towards its writer. 
Now what was the immediate family and what was the back- 
ground of our hero. One version of the ghost story was that he 
made his will the night before the battle, but no sensible man waits 
until death is at the door for this very important transaction and 
we find the following in Vol. XV, Abstract of Entry in Sheriff 
Court Books of Argyll at Inveraray. ^NI 

"Disposition by Major Duncan Campbell of Inverawe to Lieut. 
Dugald Campbell, his eldest son procreated between him and Mrs. 
Jean Campbell, his wife, whom, failing, to Lieut. Alexander Camp- 
bell, his second son, whom failing, Duncan Campbell, his third and 
youngest son, whom failing, to any other sons he may lawfully 
have, and the heirs male of their bodies in succession, whom failing, 
to Janet Campbell, his only daughter now in life procreated be- 
tween him and the said Mrs. Jean Campbell, of his whole lands 
and estate of Inverawe and others, under certain reservations ; dated 
at Glasgow 17th April, 1756; witnesses, John Campbell of Cloi- 
chombie, Alexander Campbell in Achalion, and others." 

This establishes Inverawe's family and we will see what became 
of them. Dugald was appointed 2nd Lieutenant in the 21st or Royal 
North British Fuziliers, December 28, 1755, joined his Regiment 
at Gibraltar in 1756, died and was succeeded by John Wallace, 
March 1st, 1758. 

Alexander was appointed Lieutenant in the .Black Watch Jan. 
28, 1756, was wounded at Ticonderoga and invalided to Glasgow 
where he was promoted to a Captaincy in the Argyllshire Regiment 
of Fencible men, July 21, 1759, died unmarried Feb. 8, 1760 and 
was buried in Grey Friers Burying Ground. A powder horn said 
to have belonged to Lt. Alexander and bearing the coat-of-arms 
of the Campbells of Inverawe is at the McCord Museum of McGill 
University in Montreal. 

Duncan, third son of Inverawe, is still a mystery but the fact 
that Janet was proven heir to Inverawe February 5, 1762 would 
seem to show that he had died without issue before that date. 

Major Duncan, born Nov. 22, 1702, married March 20, 1732 
Jean, daughter of Col. Alexander Campbell of Finab. She died 



42 

at Edinburgh August 20, 1761. When Janet succeeded to Inverawe 
in 1762 therefore her father, her mother and three brothers had 
all predeceased her a tragic mortality in six short years. There 
is a family tradition that Major Duncan mortgaged Inverawe to 
his brother-in-law, Col. Robert Campbell of Finab and Monzie 
and that according to old Scottish law the property was handed 
over to the man who advanced the money until the rental had 
paid off the debt, and that this arrangement was called a wadset. 
Whether Col. Campbell of Finab and Monzie acquired the property 
by wadset or purchase, it passed into his hands soon after Janet 
proved her title and it is said that when she left the estate she 
washed her hands in a bottle of wine at the border, which we were 
told was an old Highland custom. The owner of Inverawe in 1910 
was a descendant of Col. Robert Campbell of Finab and Monzie, 
a Mrs. Campbell of Dunstaffnage. Since then we are informed it 
was purchased by the late Mr. James Currie and is now for sale 
to settle his estate. 

Janet who married Capt. William Pitman, had only one daugh- 
ter, Susan, who died unmarried. So with her the descendants of 
Major Duncan Campbell of Inverawe are at an end. 

There is a very interesting tale about an Inverawe cup. It 
seems that in 1714 the three brothers, Archibald of Inverawe, 
Dugald of Shirvan, and Alexander of Kilmartin, each got a silver 
cup. The Kilmartins always kept their cup but both those of 
Inverawe and Shirvan were lost. This was such a grief to the 
Inverawes that the fact was often mentioned. On one occasion 
a friend who had heard of this cup was hunting in Ireland and 
stopped at a wretched little inn to get a drink for himself and his 
horse. The place was so disreputable looking that he would not 
go in but had his drink brought out to him. It came in a battered 
old metal cup and on the chance that it might be of value, he 
bought it from the landlord. To his great pleasure he found on 
having it cleaned that it was the long lost Inverawe cup. He had 
an inscription put on it, recording the finding, and sent it to 
Archibald Campbell of Blackhouse, a nephew of Major Duncan, 
and the representative at that time of the Inverawe family. The 
cup is still a treasured possession of the descendants of this Archi- 
bald, the Campbells of Arduaine, Lochgilphead. 





From "Auchindan'Oua Zvliscellany 
THE INVERAWE CUP 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 43 

The will of the Archibald of Inverawe of the Silver Cup and 
father of Major Duncan Campbell, is as follows: 

"1727, February 23rd Disposition by Archibald Campbell of 
Inveraw to Duncan Campbell, his eldest lawful son, and the heirs 
male of his body, whom failing, to Dugall Campbell, his second 
lawful son, and his heirs male, whom failing, Lachlan Campbell, 
his third son, and Alexander Campbell, his fourth son, whom all 
failing, the heirs of the Granter and Janet McLean, his spouse, 
whom failing, his heirs of any other marriage of his lands of 
Inveraw, Drumchoise, Dalneass, etc., with certain exceptions, 
including a life rent right granted by the deceased Archibald 
Campbell of Inveraw to Lilias Campbell, his spouse, now spouse to 
Angus Campbell of Dunstagnage; dated at Inveraw 14th February 
1722." 

Another interesting fact in the Inverawe annals is that Dugald 
Campbell of London in the parish of Saint Martin's, Westminster, 
and County of Middlesex, by his will bearing date the 2nd day of 
June 1718, gave to old decayed men and young women of Campbell 
of Inverawe's family, the sum of 300, and that this "Inverawe 
Annuity Fund" since augmented, is still administered by Trustees 
chosen from the Inverawe heirs. 

The present known Campbells who are proud to claim that 
they are of the Clan Inverawe are descended from Alexander, 
brother of Duncan, the fourth son of Archibald, as named in the 
foregoing will. Alexander was born in 1710 and married Ann 
Somerville in 1747. If all of the descendants of this union have 
been of as fine, high character as those whom we have been priv- 
ileged to meet, the world has indeed been richer for the Campbells 
of Inverawe. 

Family Tree of The Campbells of Inverawe 

The family does not seem to be entirely in agreement on the 
line back of the 18th Century. The following is gathered from dif- 
ferent branches. One version is that the Inverawes descended from 
Sir Archibald Campbell of Lochow, whose son Colin was knighted 
by Alexander III, 1280, and died 1294. His son, Niel or Nigel of 
Lochow, died 1360, and his son, Dugald or Duncan was the 1st 
"Inverawe" and ancestor of the Clan Dhonnachie Campbells. He 
got a grant of the estate of Inveraw and Cruachan from David II, 
1330. A later Inveraw got a grant of lands from Queen Mary, 



44 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

1558. With the exception of a gap of about 60 years from 1460 or 
so to 1510, we have a complete record of "Inveraws" practically 
an unbroken succession from father to son. 

Another version is the following: 
Archibald, c/v from 1st Earl of Argyll 

Dougal, c/v 22.11.1485, from 2nd Earl. Sasine Des. 1486. Officer 
of Over Lochow to the Earl. (Inverawe deeds) 

Archibald, signs Archibald McCoul McConachie of Inverawe 1519, 
(Thanes of Cawdor), c/v from 2nd Earl as heir to Dugal 
(Inverawe deeds) married Margaret Campbell. 

Dougal, (Inverawe 1548-1562). (Register of Decreets and Acts) 
said to have married a dau. of Lochnell. 

Archibald, (1562-1567 or 1576) married Margaret C. dau. of Dou- 
gal C. of Ardcullour, sister of Sir James C. Vlth of Ardkinklas. 
(A. Charters) 

Dougal, (1576 or 1567-1583) married Christian Carswell, dau. (or 
granddaughter) of Bishop Carswell. Relict of Dougal 1587. 
She afterward married Neill Campbell, Bishop of Lismore. 

Archibald, (1583-1650) 

Dougal, (1650-1674), burned "Bonnie House of Airlie" 1640. mar- 
ried 1st, Agnes, dau. of Sir Robert C. of Glenarguhy (Braedal- 
bane) 2nd, Janet, dau. of Rory McNeill of Barra. 

Archibald, (1674-1705), son of Dougal and Agnes. Married 1st, 
Mary, dau. of Hector McNeill of Thayneis. 2nd, Lilias, dau. 
of Sir James C. of Lawers. 

Archibald, (1705-1730) married Janet McLean of Torloisk. Served 
heir to Cattinis 1700, later Inverawe, etc. Received Inverawe 
cup 1714. 

Duncan (1730-1758), Major Black Watch, married Jane Campbell 
of Finab. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 



ARCHIBALD OF INVERAWE 

b. abt. 1670. got cup 1714. d. 1730. 
m. Janet Maclean of Tarloisk, in Mull, abt. 1700. 



Duncan of Inveraw Barbara 
Maj. Black Watch b. 1703 
b. 1702. d. 1758 Campbell 
m. Jean Campbell m. Archd. 
of Finab of Jura 

I 

/ r f 

Dugald Alexander Duncan 

Lieut, b. abt. 1705 Lieut. 

d. unm. Lieut. Black d. unm. 

Watch, d. of 

wounds rec'd 

Ticongeroga. 

Unm. 



Archibald Dugald Alexander 
b. 1705 b. 1706 b. 1710 
d. before no issue m. 1747 
1721 Ann Somer 

ville 



Janet 

m. Wm. Pitman, M. D. 33d 
Regt. (Duke of Cumberland's 
army. Sold Inveraw 1762 to her 
uncle, Col. Robt. Campbell of 
Monzie and Finab. One dau. 
Susan, d unm. 



-Lachlan 

b. 1709 

d. young 
-Isobel 

b. 1711 
-Elizabeth 

b. 1713 
-Patrick 

b. 1714 
-Lilias 

b. 1716 
-Ann b. 1717 
-John b. 1719 



Jean John 
m. Duncan 
Campbell 
Achlian 


Archibald 
of Blackhouse 
m. Katberine Fish 
| 1817 


Ann Alexander 
d. unm. 


Duncan 
b. 1763d. 1815 
m. 1798 Harriot 
Young, b. 1774. 



Alexander of Auchindarock 
Pur'd 1829. Trustee sold 
Tirvine to James A. C. 1830. 
3rd Dragoon Guards, d. July 1902. 
m. Harriet Keir, dau. Sir James Keir. 



See next page 



/ f f 

Archibald Julia Mary 
b. 1842 
d. Aug. 1885 
74th Highlanders 
m. Isabella C., dau. Col. 
Fairlie of Coodham A. 


/ 

Alister 
h. 1846. Killed 
Sakokunis Krael 
1879. (Schipka 
pass Campbell) 


t t 

James Walter 
Arthur b. 1854 
b. 1850 
d. Nov. 1929 
m. Miss E. M. Bruce 

. 1. 


/ 

Neil 
b. 1858 
m. M. G. 
Bovill 



Arduaine family 



Alister Magnus Roma Constance 
of Auchindarroch 1870 

b. 1868. d. Aug. 1930 
m. 1st, Lilias Mary 1897 
dau. Robt. Roberston of 
Mountgrenan, Glasgow 



Archibald Zella Muriel Donald 
b. 1878 b. 1880 b. 1881 

m. Eva, dau m. Robertson d. 1886 
Col. Agnew Glasgow 
East Warristoone 



Alister Norman Colin C. 
b. 1898 

m. 2nd Evelyn Sanderson 1903, Edinburgh 



Amy Muriel Neil Arch'd Alan Keir 
1905 b. 1906, d. 1907 b. 1908 



46 



NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 



DUNCAN (son of Alexander who was brother of Duncan of Inveraw) 
b. 1763 d. 1815 m. 1798 Harriot Young, b. 1774 



Henrietta Alexander Robert Ann Duncan Jane 
b. 1800 b. 1801 b. 1802 Eliza b. 1805 b. 1806 
m. Rev. Bracken b. 1803d. at m. Sir 

Eton Alex. 

Spearman. 
Henrietta Eliza 
d. unm. 



Jane Henrietta Augusta Alex. Edmund Horace 



James Archibald 
b. 1807, d. 1879 
m. 1st 1832 
Jane Augusta 
Pocklington 
d. 1842 
m. 2nd Maria 

Grace Cameron 
d. 1906 



Rudolph 



Thos. Edmund Augustus 

b. 1809 b. 1811 

m. Henrietta d. young in 

du Chesne snow storm 

St. Hilaire in Alps. 
Canada 
I 



Edmund Archibald Jucherau Bruce Laura Robert Duncan Donald Colin 



b. 1843 
m. Nellie 
Lind 

1 


d. 1899 


Hermome 
d. 


m. 
Mabel 
G. Allen 


Duncan Archie Charles Lola 


Edmund 


Bruce Hugh 
killed 
in war 


f killed 


Ella in war t '"'- -"- " ' r / 
Enid Phoebe Colin, 
d. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



47 



JAMES ARCHIBALD (sou of Duncan, son of Alexander bro. of Duncan of 

Inveraw. 
b. 1807 d. 1879 
m. 1st 1832 Jane Augusta Pocklington, d. 1842 

r .. 



Jane Eliza 

b. 1833 

d. 1924 

m. Rev. Walter 

Tait. Min of 

St. Madoes, Perthshire 



Laura Duncan Edmund Alex'r Florence Lome Augustus 



Beatrice Pocklington 
b. 1834 d. 
d. 1917 



d. 1887 

m. Margaret 

Campbell 

d. 1909 



Elizabeth 
d. unm. 



b. 1842 
d. 1893 
m. 1875 
Cecelia Martin 
d. 1898 



b. 1836 d. 1905 ' ' ' ' 
\ Maria Duncan Edmund Lome 


/ / 

Ronald James 
Bruce Arch'd 
m. 1911 m. Bessie 
May Anderson 
Jrockman 


J.H.'M. 

(Minna) 


/ Grace M elver Alexr Francis 
Adam m. 1904 d. 
Duncan Louis Carey 
m. 1901 | I 


Evelyn Heath ' 
| Estella Grace ' 


,i 

Neill 
b. 1924 




r 

Barbara 
Jean 


t and Patricia Bruce 
Ian Ford Duncan b. 1912 
b.1904 


ft/ 

John Frances Patrick 
Anderson 



Ethel Frederick 
m. 1897 
Chas. Desborough 

I 

/ / f 

Jan Joyce Peter 



Cecil Audrey 
d. 1918 
0. A. S. 



Ian 



James 
m. 2nd 

T 


Archibald (b. 
Maria Grace 


1807, d. 1879) 
Cemeron, d. 1906 


/ 

Grace 
m.Dr. 
Neill 
1 
John 
m. 


/ 

Donald 
Charles 
d. 1923 


t 
Henrietta 
d. 1860 


/ 
James 
Archibald 


/ t 
Maria Lilias 
Josephine MacDon 
m. 1887 
d. 1888 
Rev. Reginald Letts 


r 

Mabel 
aid Harriott 
m. 1887 
Hugh Daubney 
Lieut. RN 
d. 1914 

1 


Christian 


Francis 





b. 1888 



Gladys Marjory Hugh 
M.W.L. b.1900 

Mellersh 



Mary 



John 



Veronica 



Dugal John 
m. 



Evan Cameron 
m. Marie 



APPENDIX 

' t: ; T -7^- A 

ROLL FROM AN OLD PAPER IN POSSESSION OF THE 

7TH DUKE OF ATHOLL. OFFICERS OF THE 42ND 

HIGHLANDERS, NEW YORK, MAY 22, 1757. 

Lt. Col. Francis Grant, son of the Laird of Grant, wounded at 
Ticonderoga. 

Major Duncan Campbell, of Inverawe, killed at Ticonderoga. 

Captain Gordon Graham, of Drainie, wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Captain John Reid, of Straloch, wounded at Martinique. 

Captain John NcNeil. 

Captain Allan Campbell, son of Barcaldine. 

Captain Thomas Graeme, of Duchray, wounded at Ticonde- 
roga. 

Captain James Abercrombie. 

Captain John Campbell, of Strachur, wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Captain John Campbell, of Duneavis, killed at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant William Grant, of Rothiemurchus family, wounded 
at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant Robert Gray, wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant John Campbell, younger of Glenyon, wounded at 
Ticonderoga. 1 

Lieutenant George Farquharson, son of Farquharson of Micris, 
Braemar, killed at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant Sir James Cockburn. 2 

Lieutenant Kenneth Tolmie. 

Lieutenant James Grant (Adjutant), wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant John Graham (quartermaster) wounded at Ticon- 
deroga and wounded at Fort Pitt. 

Lieutenant Hugh McPherson, killed at Ticonderoga. 



1. Major Sir Duncan Campbell of Bacaldine says should be "of Glen- 
daruel' and that younger of Glenlyon went to the Marines in 1755. 

2. Lieut. Sir James Cockburn transferred to 48th Foot. Ensign Pat- 
rick Balneavis made Lieut., commission dated 1st April, 1758, and Mr. El- 
bert Hering succeeded to the Ensigncy, commission dated April 3d, 1758. 
(See extract from letter Jas. Abercrombie to Lord Viscount Harrington.. 
Albany, May 27, 1758.) 




Blair Castle at Blair Atholl 



Reviewing the Atholl Highlanders 



Sir John James Hugh Henry Stewart-Murray, K. T., Seventh Duke 

of Atholl 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 49 

Lieutenant Alex. Turnbull, of Strathcavere, wounded at Mar- 
tinique. 

Lieutenant Alex. Campbell, son of Inverawe, wounded at 
Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant Alex. Mclntosh, wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant James Gray. 

Lieutenant William Baillie, killed at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant Hugh Arnot. 

Lieutenant John Sutherland, killed at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant John Small. 

Lieutenant Archibald Campbell. 

Lieutenant James Campbell. 

Lieutenant Archibald Lament. 

Ensign Duncan Campbell, wounded at Fort Pitt. 

Ensign Patrick Balnea vis, 1 son of Edradour, wounded at 
Ticonderoga, wounded at Martinique. 

Ensign Patrick Stewart, 2 son of Bonskeid, killed at Ticonderoga. 

Ensign Norman MacLeod. 

Ensign George Campbell. 

Ensign Donald Campbell. 

Ensign James Mclntosh, wounded at Fort Pitt. 

Ensign Alex. Mclntosh, wounded at Martinique. 

Ensign Peter Grant, wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Three additional Companies embarked for America, November, 
1757. 

Captain James Stewart, younger of Urrard, wounded at Ticon- 
deroga. 

Captain James Murray, son of Lord G. Murray, wounded at 
Ticonderoga, wounded at Martinique. 

Captain Thomas Stirling, younger of Ardoch, wounded at Mar- 
tinique, wounded at New Jersey. 

Lieutenant Simon Blair. 

Lieutenant David Barclay, killed at Martinique. 

Lieutenant Archibald Campbell, wounded at Ticonderoga. 

Lieutenant Alex. Mackay. 

Lieutenant Alex. Menzies. 



1. See Foot Note at bottom of preceding page. 

2. Miss Ethel Lomas, copyist at Public Record Office London is auth- 
ority for the statement that this should be Peter (not Patrick) Stewart. 



60 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Lieutenant David Milne, 8 wounded at Ticonderoga, wouaded 
at Martinique. 

Ensign Duncan Stewart, son of Derculich. 

Ensign George Rattray, son of Dalralzion, killed at Ticonde- 
roga. 

Ensign Alex. Farquharson. 

"Ensiern John Smith is added in ink to the 1858 Army List in the N. Y. 
State Library at Albany and is also marked as "wounded at Ticonderogra." 

3. This name is given as David Mills in the Army List, but the Duke 
of Atholl is authority for the statement that Milne is correct. 



B 

ROLL OF CAPT. JOHN REID'S COMPANY, NOV. 1757. 

The following is the roll of Capt. John Reid's Company of 
the 42nd, which was commanded by Capt. James Murray during 
the expedition. Taken from Atholl Records, page 440, Vol. III. 

Capt. James Murray, wounded. Sergt. Alex'r Gumming. 

Lieut. Kenneth Tolmie. Corporal John Gumming. 

Lieut. David Mill, wounded. Corporal Jonathan Grant. 

Ensign Charles Menzies. Corporal Angus McDonald. 

Sergt. James McNab. Corporal John Stewart. 

Sergt. John McAndrews. Drum Walter Mclntyre, killed. 

Sergt. John Watson. Drum Alan Campbell. 

Privates 

Wm. Anderson. James Mclntyre, killed. 

John Buchanan, killed. Hector Mclnven. 

Angus Cameron. Hugh McKay. 

Hugh Cameron, killed. Alex'r McKenzie. 

Wm. Carmichael. Hugh McKenzie. 

Donald Carr, killed. John McKenzie, killed. 

Hugh Christie. John McKenzie. 

Alex. Gumming. Roderick McKenzie. 

James Farquharson, killed. Dougall McLachlan, killed. 

Alex Fraser. John McLaren. 

Donald Fraser. Roderick McLaren. 

Donald Fraser. Neil McLeod. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



51 



Hugh Fraser. 
Hugh Fraser, killed. 
John Forbes. 
John Graham. 
Donald Grant. 
James Grant. 
John Grant. 
John Grant. 
William Grant. 
James Gordon. 
William Gordon. 
Donald Kennedy. 
Donald Kennedy. 
John Kennedy. 
George McAdam. 
John McArthur. 
Donald McColl. 
Donald McDiarmid. 
Angus McDonald. 
Arch'd McDonald. 
Arch'd McDonald, killed. 
James McDonald, killed. 
John McDonald. 
Lachlan McDonald. 
William McDonald, killed. 
Neil McEachern. 
Peter McFarlane. 
Peter McFarlane, killed. 
John McGillvray. 
Leonard McGlashan. 
Alex McGregor. 
Donald McGregor. 
Robert McGregor. 
John Mclntosh. 
Alex Mclntyre. 
Donald Mclntyre. 



Norman McLeod, killed. 

Donald McLeish. 

Donald McLeish. 

William McLinnion. 

Neil McMillan. 

Donald McNeil, killed. 

Neil McNeil. 

Hugh McPhee. 

John McPhee. 

Alex McPherson. 

Donald McPherson. 

Donald McQueen, killed. 

James Michael. 

Donald Murray. 

James Murray. 

James Rea. 

Alex'r Reid. 

Alex'r Ross. 

Donald Ross. 

Hugh Ross, killed. 

John Ross. 

Donald Robertson. 

Neil Shaw. 

John Sinclair, died of wounds. 

John Smith. 

Walter Spaulding. 

Alex'r Stewart. 

Charles Stewart, died of wounds, 

Donald Stewart, died of wounds. 

Walter Stewart, died ofwounds . 

Robert Urquhart. 

Donald Watson. 

Donald Wheet. 

William Wishart. 

Duncan Wright. 



The above roll was made out at the muster in October, 1757, 
and contains the names of those who served in the Company for 



52 



NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 



the previous six months. Unfortunately the names of the non- 
commissioned officers and men who were wounded at Ticonderoga 
are not shown. 



ROLL OF CAPT. JAMES MURRAY'S COMPANY, NOV. 1757. 

This Company was at Fort Edward captained by Capt. James 
Abercrombie and not in the battle of July 8, 1758. 



Atholl Records, p. 431, Vol. III. 



Sergt. Wm. Grant. 
Sergt. Charles Robinson. 
Sergt, John McQueen. 



George Bremmer. 
Donald Brown. 
Duncan Cameron. 
John Campbell. 
Donald Conacher. 
William Cowie. 
James Douglas. 
Donald Drummond. 
James Duncan. 
Alex Fraser (1). 
Alex Fraser (2). 
William Fife. 
Robert Grant. 
Alex Irvine. 
James Kennedy. 
Duncan McAndrew. 
Donald McDiarmid. 
Archibald McDonald. 
Archibald McDonald. 
Donald McDonald. 
John McDonald. 
William McDonald. 



Corporal John Leslie. 
Corporal Robert Lachlan. 
Drummer Alan Campbell. 



Privates 



Thos. McNab. 
Alex McPherson. 
James McPherson. 
Donald McRaw. 
Robert Menzies. 
William Munroe. 
John Murray. 
Alex'r Nicholson. 
Alex'r Norrie. 
Alex'r Reid. 
Alex'r Robertson. 
Angus Robertson. 
Archibald Robertson. 
Charles Robertson. 
Donald Robertson. 
James Robertson. 
James Robertson. 
John Robertson. 
Peter Robertson. 
'James Scroggie. 
Alex'r Stewart. 
Alex'r Stewart. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



53 



Peter McFarlane. 
Alex'r Mclntosh. 
Robert Mclntosh. 
Robert Mclntosh. 
William Mclntosh. 
Donald McLean. 
"Donald McLean. 



O 



fc, 
O 

El 



Q 
<N 



O 





1 

o 






Alex'r Stewart. 
John Stewart. 
Robert Stewart. 
Thomas Stewart. 
William Stewart. 
John Wighton. 
John Wighton. 







00 ^-.'^ .,.,.....,.%...,.,. 



EH 
O 



* O 
O r*- 



H 



|| 

|o, 



=3X! c a 



0) 

'-3 -+3 -^ 



W 



54 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 



COMPARISON OF LOSSES OF BLACK WATCH AT TICON- 
DEROGA WITH THOSE OF OTHER WARS. 

In the "Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861, 
1865. A treatise in the extent and nature of the mortuary losses 
in the Union Regiments, with full and exhaustive statistics com- 
piled from the official records on file on the State Military Bureaus 
and at Washington, by William F. Fox, Lieut. Col. U. S. V., presi- 
dent of the Society of the 12th Army Corps; late president of the 
107th New York Veteran Volunteer Association. Albany Publish- 
ing Company, Albany, N. Y., 1899." The writer states that he has 
examined the records of 2,000 regiments of the Union Army and on 
page 2 he says, "The one regiment in all the Union Army which 
sustained the greatest loss in battle during the American Civil 
War was the 5th New Hampshire Infantry. It lost 295 men, killed 
or mortally wounded in action during the four years of service 
from 1861 to 1865. It served in the first division, second corps. 
This division was commanded successively by General Richardson, 
Hancock, Caldwall, Barlow and Miles and any regiment that fol- 
lowed the fortunes of these men was sure to find plenty of bloody 
work cut out for it. Its loss includes 18 officers killed, a number 
far in excess of the usual proportions and indicates that the men 
were bravely led." 

"There were 34 regiments of the Union Army whose casualties 
in killed, wounded or missing amounted to 58 per cent or over of 
the men engaged in one battle in each case, however, there was 
not a full regiment engaged. For example, the 1st Minnesota at 
Gettysburg, which was the highest per centage, had 47 killed and 
168 wounded, or a total loss of 215 out of 262 men engaged. This 
is a loss of 82 per cent. 

The 9th Illinois at Shiloh had 61 killed, 300 wounded and 5 
missing, a total of 63.3 per cent. 

The Light Brigade which has been immortalized by Tenny- 
son took 673 officers and men into that charge at Balaklava in 
which 113 were killed and 134 wounded, a total of 247 or 36.7 per 
cent. 



\CHUSETS 
1 BY AN- ORDER OF '. GREAT AND GENERAL COURT 

DATE FEB m/op.CAUSED THIS MONUMENT TO 
5|BE ERECTED TO Tlil. '.itIMORY OF GEORGE AUGUSTUS LORD 
?|ViSCOUNT HOWE BRIGADIER GENERAL OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
^MFORCES IN AU:I;I ( -\ \n/ur\ L../- , .. ^._.. 

^3 ON THE 

' 

~S A\n nn IT.,,, ""*" "-">t intT MAU OK H!<v'< 

>>!> MIIJTARY VJRTIIP'^ AMr\ 

AN'D SOLDIERS BORE ^ AFFEJ ^'ON i 




Lord Howe's Monument in Westminster Abbey 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



55 



The heaviest loss in the German army of the Franco-Prussian 
war was the 16th Infantry (3d Westphalian) at Mars LaTour 
which had 509 killed, 619 wounded, 365 missing, a total of 1,484 or 
49.4 per cent, out of 3,000 men. The regiments of the German 
army had 3,000 men." 

The above are the greatest casualties suffered in three great 
wars taken from a book compiled by an authority who had made 
a study of the subject. Compare with these the loss of the Black 
Watch at Ticonderoga given by Col. Stewart of Garth as 8 officers, 
9 sergeants and 297 men killed and 17 officers, 10 sergeants and 
306 soldiers wounded or a casualty of 647 (64.7 per cent) out of 
the 1,000 men of the 42nd reported by General Abercrombie at 
Lake George, June 29, 1758. 



TABLE OF LOSSES OF BLACK WATCH IN SEVEN 
YEAR WAR. 

The loss sustained by the regiment during the seven years it 
was employed in America and the West Indies was as follows: 





KILLED 


WOUNDED 




K 
o 



o 

5 

a 

s 


02 2 

-S | 

.5 O> fl S .2 

Occ coQ 


Field Officers 
Captains 
Subalterns 
Serjeants 
Drummers 


Privates 


Ticonderoga, July 8, 1758 1 


16 9 2 297 


5 12 10 


306 


Martinique January, 1759 


8 


1 2 




Gaudeloupe, Feb. and Mar., 1759 
General Amherst's Expedition to 
the Lakes, July and Aug., 1759 
Martinique, Jan. and Feb., 1762 . 
Havana, June and July, 1762, 
both battalions 


1 1 25 

3 

116 12 

6 


4 3 

1 
11731 

1 


57 

4 
72 

12 


Expedition under Colonel Bo- 
quet,, August, 1763 


111 26 


1122 


30 


Second Expedition under Bo- 
quet, in 1764 and 1765 


7 


1 


19 


Total in the Seven Years' War 1 


3 9 12 2 384 


1 7 25 22 4 


522 


Stewart of Garth, Appendix. 









66 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 



OFFICIAL TITLES OF BLACK WATCH AT DIFFERENT 

PERIODS. 

1667 to 1739, The Black Watch. 

1739 to 1749, The Regiment was known during this period by 
the names of its Colonels, as was the custom in the British Army 
at that time, Earl of Crawford's, Lord Sempill's, Lord John Mur- 
ray's. It was also called The Highland Regiment. It is said that 
the Regiment was at first the 43d Regt. of Foot, but while it was 
43d in order of precedence it is a question if it was ever officially 
called the 43d. 

1749 to 1758, 42nd Regiment of Foot (The Highland Regi- 
ment) . 

1758 to 1861, 42nd (or Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot. 

1861 to 1881, 42nd Royal Highlanders (The Black Watch). 
1881 to date, 1st Battalion The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders). 



1758 to 1786, 2nd Battalion 42nd (or Royal Highland), Regiment 

of Foot. 

1786 to 1862, 73d (Highland) Regiment of Foot. 

1862 to 1881, 73d (Perthshire) Regiment of Foot. 

1881 to date, 2nd Battalion The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders). 



PRINCIPAL CAMPAIGNS, BATTLES, ETC. 

* "Honors" on the Colors, the figures showing the Battalion 
concerned. 

1743-47 Flanders. 1801 Mandora. 

1745 Fontenoy. * 1808- 14 Peninsula (1). 

1745 Jacobite rising. 1808 Roleia. 

1757-60 Canada. 1808 Vimiera. 

1758 Ticonderoga. *1809 Corunna (1). 

1759 Guadeloupe. 1810 Busaco. 

1762 Martinique. *1811 Fuentes d'Onor (1). 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



57 



1762 Havannah. 
1762-67 Indian Frontier. 

1763 Bushy Run. 
1775-81 America. 
1776 Long Island. 
1776 White Plains. 
1776 Brooklyn. 

1776 Fort Washington. 

1777 Pisquata. 
1777 Brandy wine. 

1777 Germantown. 

1778 Freehold. 
1780 Charlestown. 

* 1783 Mysore (2). 
*1783 Mangalore (2). 

1793 Pondicherry. 

1893-95 Flanders. 

1793 Nieuport. 
1794 Nimeguen. 

1795 Ceylon. 

1795 Guildermalsen. 

1796 St. Lucia. 

1797 St. Vincent. 

1798 Minorca. 

*1799 Seringapatam (2) 

1799 Genoa. 

1799 Cadiz. 

1800 Malta. 
*1801 Egypt (1). 

1801 Alexandria. 
1801 Aboukir. 



1812 Ciudad Rodrigo. 
1812 Salamanca. 

1812 Burgos. 
*1813 Pyrenees (1). 

1813 Gohrde. 
*1813Nivelle (1). 
*1813 Nive (1). 
*1814 Orthes (1). 

1814 Antwerp. 

* 1814 Toulouse (1). 

1815 Quatre Bras. 

* 1815 Waterloo (1 and 2) 
1815 Netherlands. 

* 1846-53 South Africa (2), 
*1854 Alma (1). 

1854 Balaclava. 

1854 Kertch. 

1855 Yenikale. 
*1855 Sevastopol (1). 

1857-58 Indian Mutiny. 

1857 Cawnpore. 
*1858Lucknow (1). 
*1874 Ashantee (1). 

* 1882-84 Egypt (1). 
*1882 Tel-el-Kebir (1). 
*1884-85Nile (1). 

1884 El-Teb. 
1884 Tamai. 
*1885 Kirbekan (1). 

* 1899- 1902 South Africa. 
*1900 Paardeberg. 



BRITISH REGIMENTS AT TICONDEROGA, 1758 

With Notes From Farmer's Regimental Records. 

27th. 

1751-1881, The 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot. Also 
1758 "Lord Blakeney's." 



58 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

1881 (from) First Battalion "The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers." 
Nickname "The Lumps." 



Notes. Formed from three Companies of the Inniskilling forces. It is 
unique in using the old Irish war-pipes. While employed on the Isthmus 
of Darien all but nine of six hundred men succumbed. For distinguished 
gallantry at St. Lucia, in 1696, it was directed that the French garrison in 
marching out should lay down their arms to the 27th, other marks of 
favor being likewise accorded to the officers and men of the regiment. 

42nd. 
1749-58, 42nd Regiment of Foot (The Highland Regiment). 

1758-1861, 42nd (or Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot. Also 
"Lord John Murray's," 1758 and 59. 

1881 (from) 1st Battalion The Black Watch (Royal High- 
landers). 

Regimental Badges "The Royal Cypher within the Garter." 
The badge and motto of the Order of the Thistle. Also (in each 
of the four corners) the Royal Cypher ensigned with the Imperial 
Crown. Also "The Spinx" (for Egypt, 1801). 



Notes. The 1st Battalion of this famous corps, the oldest Highland 
regiment in the British army, was raised from six Independent companies 
of Highlanders. Its sombre dress of black, blue, and green tartan gave 
rise to its popular name. To enumerate its services is simply to narrate 
the military history of Great Britain since the early part of the last cen- 
tury. Hardly a campaign has been conducted, or a battle fought, HI which 
the Black Watch one battalion or the other, or both in company has not 
participated; always with bravery, and frequently with conspicuous gal- 
lantry. Thereto its records of services abundantly testifies. At Fontenoy, 
Ticonderoga, and at Bushy Run "extraordinary and unexampled" gallantry 
was shown. It received Royal distinction in its change of title in 1758, 
and was privileged to wear the red heckle in the bonnet, in recognition 
of its conduct at the battle of Guildermalsen in 1795. In Egypt (in 1801, 
for which it bears "The Sphinx"), before Alexandria, it captured the 
Standard of the French Invincible Legion. Since then it has heaped fame 
on fame, and added "honor" to "honor" to its colours. Nor has the 2nd 
Battalion (raised in Perthshire in 1758 as the second Battalion of the 42nd, 
but, renumbered, long known as the 73rd prior to the territorial restoration 
of the ancient status) failed to win fresh laurels as occasion arose. At 
Mangalore (1783) against Tippoo Sahib, and side by side with the senior 
Battalion at Waterloo, in the Netherlands, in the Indian Mutiny, and in the 
Kaffir wars of 1846-53, it has worthily sustained the undying fame of the 
regiment. Recent events in South Africa show that neither the officers 
nor the men of today have lost one iota of that traditional dash, determina- 
tion, and the bravery which have won for the Black Watch so glorious a 
place in British military annals. 

44th. 

1751-82, The 44th Regiment of Foot. Also 1758, "General 
Abercrombie's." 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 59 

1881 (from) The First Battalion "The Essex Regiment." 

Nicknames "The Two Fours" (of the 44th). "The Little 
Fighting Fours," (the regiment saw hard service in the Peninsula, 
and its men were of small average stature). "The Pompadours" 
and "Saucy Pompeys." (Tradition relates that when the facings 
were changed in 1764 (the crimson not wearing well) the Colonel 
desired Blue, but the authorities objecting, he chose Purple, a 
favorite color of Madame de Pompadour, a mistress of Louis XV, 
cf France). 



Notes. The 44th captured an Eagle of the 62nd French Infantry at 
Salamanica. 

46th 

1751-82, The 46th Regiment of Foot. Also 1758 "Lieut. Gen. 
Thomas Murray's. 

1881 (from) Second Battalion "Duke of Cornwall's Light in- 
fantry." 

Nicknames These pertain to the late 46th ; "Murray's Buck's" 
(from Colonel name (1743-64) and its smart appearance on home 
duty in Scottish Royal livery). "The Surprisers" (from an incident 
(1777) in the American War). "The Lacedemonians" (its Colonel 
once when under fire, made a disciplinarian speech concerning the 
Lacedemonians). Also in early days, "The Edinburgh Regiment." 
"The Red Feathers." "The Docs" (the initials) . 



Note. "The Two Feathers" is a distinction of the 46th, a Light com- 
pany of which, in 1777, with others were brigaded as "The Light Bat- 
talion." The Americans were so harrassed by the Brigade that they vowed 
"No Quarter." In derision, to prevent mistakes, the Light Battalion dyed 
their feathers red; the 46th Foot alone has retained the distinction. 

55th 

1757-82, The 55th Regiment of Foot. Also "Lord Howe's" in 

1858 and "Prideaux's" in 1759. 

i* 1 

1881 (from) Second Battalion "The Border Regiment." 
Nickname "The Two Fives" (to the 55th for its number). 



Notes. The Dragon of China is on the Regimental Badge of the 55th 
in honor of the victorious campaign in China in 1840-4^. 



60 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

1st and 4th Battalions 60th. 

1755-57, The 62nd (Royal American) Regiment of Foot; re- 
numbered. 

1757-1824, The 60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot. 
1881 (from) Second Battalion "The Border Regiment." 



Notes. This regiment, though possessing no "Colors," bears more hon- 
ors than any other regiment, the Highland Light Infantry coming next 
with twenty-nine. Motto, "Swift and Bold," bestowed according to tradi- 
tion by General Wolfe in recognition of its conduct at Quebec. 

80th. 

1758-64, The 80th (Light-armed) Regiment of Foot. Also 
"Gage's." (Disbanded 1764). 

The Royal Regiment of Artillery. 

One arm or other of this branch of the Service has, obviously, 
taken part in every campaign; a particularized list is therefore 
unnecessary. The guns are the "Colours" of the Artillery, and as 
such are entitled to all "parade honours." Formerly, regimental 
honors appear to have been worn by certain companies. Amongst 
such are "Niagara," "Leipsic," "Waterloo," and "The Dragon of 
China." 

Nicknames "The Gunners;" "The Four-wheeled Hussars" (of 
the Royal Horse Artillery). 



Notes. Trains of artillery seem to have been raised in the time of 
Henry VIII,; and up to 1716 appear to have been disbanded after each cam- 
paign. In 1716 several companies received permanent corporate existence, 
since which exigencies of modern warfare have led to an enormous in- 
crease in the number of batteries. But from first to last, the record of the 
Royal Artillery has been one of distinction, and it may fitly be said to 
share the honors of all other regiments. The Royal Irish Artillery were 
absorbed in 1801, and the East India Company's Artillery in 1858. 

BRITISH REGIMENTS AT TICONDEROGA, 1759. 

1st. 

1751-1812, The 1st, or The Royal Regiment of Foot, also the 
"Royals." 

1881 (from) The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment). 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 61 

Nickname "Pontius Pilate's Body-Guard." It is a legend 
of the Regiment that the Romans carried off a number of wild, 
war-like Highlanders as prisoners after their conquest of Britain, 
and these men and their descendants became soldiers of the Roman 
Empire and as such they guarded the tomb of Our Saviour after 
the crucifixion. This Scottish company, for it only consisted of 
one hundred men under a centurion, was kept distinct from the 
Roman Army proper. At the time of the crucifixion they were 
called Pontius Pilate's Scots Guards, and their descendants were 
the nucleus of the First Royal Scots in later years. 



Notes. The oldest Regiment of Foot in the British Army. Tradition- 
ally regarded as the ancient body-guard of the Scottish kings, this famous 
corps was in the service of Sweden, as "Hepburn's Regiment," from 1625 
to 1633; and in that of France from 1633 to 1678, when (under Dumbarton) 
it came to England. It received its title in 1684 in recognition of the cap- 
ture of a Colour from the Moors at Tangier. At Sedgemoor (1685) it also 
captured the Duke of Monmouth's Standard. 

17th. 

1751-82, The 17th Regiment of Foot. Als "Forbes." 
1881 (from) "The Leicestershire Regiment." 

Nicknames "The Bengal Tigers" (from its badge); "The 
Lily-whites" (from its facings). 



Notes Mainly raised near London; twelve regiments in all were formed 
in 1688, but this and the 16th (The Bedfordshire) are alone in commission 
now. 

27th. 
See above, Ticonderoga, 1758. 

42nd. 
See above, Ticonderoga, 1758. 

55th. 
See above, Ticonderoga, 1758. 

77th. 

1756-63, The 77th (Montgomery Highlanders) Regiment; dis- 
banded 1763. 



62 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

80th. 
See above, Ticonderoga, 1758. 

Royal Artillery. 
See above, Ticonderoga, 1758. 

I 

PROVINCIAL REGIMENTS AT TICONDEROGA. 

(The writer will have to admit that this list is more or less 
incomplete, even the N. Y. State Library at Albany had only scat- 
tered items. It would seem as if this would be a good subject for 
an article for some future meeting of the Association and any 
information will be gratefully received). 

1758. 

The New York Colonial Manuscripts, edited by Callaghan, 
page 732, in the list of regiments having officers wounded at the 
battle of July 8, 1758, gives the following regiments: Col. De- 
Lanceys, New York; Col. Babcock's, Rhode Island; Col. Fitche's, 
Connecticut; Col. Worcester's, Connecticut; Col. Bagley's, Massa- 
chusetts; Col. Partridge's, Massachusetts; Col. Preble's, Massachu- 
setts; Col. Johnston's, New Jersey. Parkmen mentions Col. Brad- 
street with his regiment of boatmen, armed and drilled as soldiers 
and it is also certain that Roger's Rangers were with the expedition. 

The year book of the Maine Chapter of the Society of Colonial 
Wars for 1900 gives much information in regard to Col. Preble's 
regiment, Maine being in 1758 a part of Massachusetts. Mention 
is made in this article of regiments officered by "Col. Doty, Col. 
Joseph Williams, Col. Nickols, Col. Whitings." 

Also in the New York Colonial Manuscripts, Vol. 10, P. 827 
it mentions a force of about 3,000 men nearly all of whom were 
provincials, under Col. Bradstreet, in the expedition against Fort 
Frontinac after the battle of July 8, 1758, and of the number of 
soldiers engaged, the list is given as New Yorkers 1112, Col. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 63 

Williams' regiment 413, Col. Douty's 248, Rhode Island 318, and 
Jersey 418." 

It is not clear whether these regiments were at the battle of 
Ticonderoga and were not mentioned in list page 732 of the New 
York Colonial Manuscripts because none of the officers were 
wounded, or whether they were the same regiments but with 
different officers, a change having been made after the battle. 

1759 

The provincial regiments mentioned in Commissary Wilson's 
Orderly Book as being in the Ticonderoga expedition of 1759 are 
as follows: Col. Lyman's, Connecticut; Col. Whiting's, Connecti- 
cut; Col. Worcester's, Connecticut; Col. Fitch's, Connecticut; Col. 
Willard's, Massachusetts; Col. Ruggle's, Massachusetts; Col. 
Lovell's, New Hampshire; Col. Schuyler's, New Jersey; Col. Bab- 
cock's, Rhode Island. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF AS MANY OF THE 
OFFICERS OF 1758 AS COULD BE TRACED. 

James Abercrombie. 

James Abercrombie was promoted to a captaincy in the 42nd 
or 1st Battalion of the Royal Highlanders on the 16th of February, 
1756. On the 5th of May, 1759, he was appointed aid de camp 
to Maj. Gen. Amherst, with whom he made the campaigns of 
that and the following year. On the 25th of July, 1760, he was 
appointed Major of the 78th or Eraser's Highlanders and in 
September following was employed by Gen. Amherst in communi- 
cating to the Marquis de Vaudreuil the conditions preparatory to 
the surrender of Montreal and in obtaining the signature of that 
governor to them. (Knox's Journal). The 78th having been dis- 
banded in 1763, Major Abercrombie retired on half pay. On the 
27th of March, 1770, he again entered active service as Lt. Colonel 
of the 22nd Regiment then serving in America under the command 



New York Colonial Manuscripts by Broadhead, Weed, Parsons Co., 
Albany, 1856, page 160. '. 



64 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

of Lt. Col. Gage and was killed in the memorable Battle of Bunker 
Hill on the 17th of June, 1775. 

Hugh Arnot. 

Hugh Arnot was taken from the half pay list and appointed a 
Lieutenant in the 42nd Highlanders, 9th April, 1756, at the 
augmentation of that Regiment on its coming to America, and was 
promoted to a Company on the 27th December, 1757. He served 
in the unfortunate affair of Ticonderoga in 1758, and in 1759 
accompanied Amherst as above. On the 16th August, 1760, he 
exchanged into the 46th Foot, in which Regiment he continued to 
serve until 1769, when his name was dropped from the Army List. 



Wilson's Orderly Book, p. 143. 

Patrick Balneaves. 

Patrick Balneaves, of Edradour, entered the 42nd, as Ensign, 
28th January, 1756, and was promoted to be Lieutenant 1st April, 
1758; he was wounded at Ticonderoga, 1758; and again at Martinico 
in 1762; became Captain-Lieutenant 23rd August, 1763, and left 
the army in 1770. 



Stewart. Army Lists. N. T. Colonial Manuscripts, p. 729, Vol. 10. 

Allan Campbell. 

Allan Campbell, son of Barcaldine, entered the Army as 
Ensign of the 43d (now the 42nd) Highlanders, Dec. 25, 1744, and 
served that year against the Pretender. Was made prisoner of war 
at Preston Pans, 21st Sept. 1745 and sent on parole to Perth. Was 
appointed lieutenant Dec. 1, 1746. He obtained a Company 13th 
of May, 1755, and the next year came to America, where he shared 
the difficulties and honors of the Regiment. In June, 1759, he was 
appointed Major for the campaign under Amherst, and was actively 
employed at the Head of the Grenadiers and Rangers, clearing the 
way for the army up the Lakes. He became major in the army 
15th August, 1762, and went on halfpay on the reduction of the 
regiment in 1763, having obtained a grant of 5,000 acres of land at 
Crown Point. He served 19 years in the regiment. In 1770, he 
was appointed Major of the 36th or Herefordshire Foot, then 




AT TICONDEROG-A 

Tablet on Boulder near French Line? at Fort Ticonderoga 
Tablet in Black Watch Memorial at Ticonderoga 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 65 

serving in Jamaica ; became Lieutenant-Colonel in the army in May 
(1772), and of his regiment in January, 1778; Colonel in the Army, 
17th Nov. 1780; Major-General in 1787; and died 1795. His 
Regiment did not serve in America during the Revolutionary War. 

An extract from his will dated 2nd March 1787, reads: "And 
whereas I am under a grant from the Crown intitled to a consider- 
able tract of land and heredits situate, lying and being in the 
Province of New York in the County of Albany in America, 
between Ticonderoga and Crown Point. * * I do hereby give, devise 
and bequeath unto my two sisters, Isabella Campbell, (wife of John 
C. of Archalader, in the Shire of Perth, in North Britain, aforesaid 
Esquire), and Jane Campbell of Edinchip, in the Shire of Perth, 
aforesaid, widow of Colin Campbell of Edinchip, aforesaid, Esq. 
deceased, their heirs, executors, Administrators, and Assigns, all my 
said track of land and heredits, in America," etc. 



Browne, IV, 150. 

Knox Journal, I, 373, 377, 387; II. 401. 

Army List. Commissionary Wilson's Orderly Book. 1759. p. 18. Stewart 
of Garth Appendix. 

Archibald Campbell. 

Archibald Campbell. Born 1720. Eldest son of Duncan 
Campbell of Glendaruel and Lockhead. His mother was Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Rev. Archibald Campbell of Inverary. He was 
appointed Ensign 42d Regt. 23d Jan. 1756, Lieut. 28th July 1757, 
Captain 4th Dec. 1759. Died 3d June 1762. 

Donald Campbell. 

Donald Campbell, son of Donald Campbell Bailie of McKairn, 
Taynuilt Argyll, was appointed Ensign in the 42d Regt. of Foot, 
5th May 1756. He was with one of the additional companies in 
the "Anandall" which sprang two leaks, lost her mizen mast, was 
attacked three times by Privateers (which they beat off with small 
arms), and was driven into the West Indies, so that she did 
not arrive in New York, in time for the company to join the attack 
on Ticonderoga. He was appointed Lieut. 24th July 1758 and 
retired 13th June 1761, having served with the Royal Highlanders 
from 1758 to 1761. 

Highlanders in America by MacLean, paare 176, N. T. Colonial Docu- 
ments, pag-e 629. 



66 NEW YOBK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Duncan Campbell (Killochronan, Island of Mall). 

"Extract from the Memorial of Captain Duncan Campbell, 
American Loyalist Claims. 

"Humbly Sheweth, that he was a native of Great Britain and 
he was appointed Ensign in the 42nd Highlanders 26 January 
1756, in which Corps he served the war before last in America 
and the West Indies. And in August 1763 the Regiment was 
ordered on an expedition to the relief of Fort Pitt, then invested 
by the savages. 

On the march he was severely wounded at the battle of Bushy 
Run, and for a long time rendered unfit for service. (In this 
skirmishing warfare the troops suffered much from the want of 
water and the extreme heat of the weather) which occasioned his 
retiring on half pay in 1764. 

He soon thereafter settled at Fredricksburg, Dutchess Co. in 
the Prov. of New York (in 1769) and purchased a valuable track 
of land from Colonel Beverly Robinson and others on good terms. 
In 1775 he was Colonel of Militia and Magistrate for the said 
county. 

That at the commencement of the troubles he took an early 
and decided part in favor of His Majesty's government, which 
rendered him so obnoxious to the popular party where he dwelt 
that he was obliged to fly to New York, to save his life, from the 
family and abandon his property in June 1775. That soon after 
his arrival there he engaged as an officer in the 2nd Battalion 
Highland Emigrant's in which he continued doing duty until the 
cessation of hostilities, and consequent reduction of the Regiment 
in Nova Scotia, in which Province he now dwells. (2 Jannary 1784). 

That early in June 1775 he got on board the Asia ship of war 
(64 gun frigate) then stationed in New York and soon after was 
joined by some; recruits he had engaged to follow him. In July 
thereafter he went to Boston where Gen. Gage then Commander-in- 
Chief, gave him command of an armed transport in which he 
returned to New York where he enlisted and received on board 
about 60 more recruits. That in September he returned again to 
Boston where he left all his recruits except 26 which were left on 
board as Marines, on the 8 October he was sent back on the same 
service. But on the 16 of the same month was unfortunately ship- 
wrecked on the coast of New Jersey. 

On this service he lost all his money and baggage to the 
amount of 100. This loss His Excellency Sir William Howe, then 
Commander-in-Chief, would not think of reimbursing at the time. 




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THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 67 

In consequence of the shipwreck he and his party had the misfor- 
tune to be made prisoners and was carried to Philadelphia where 
he was fourteen months in a small apartment of the dismal goal 
where he contracted a sickness which was likely to prove fatal to 
him. 

How soon he was taken his family were turned out of doors 
and deprived of everything they had except some wearing apparell. 
The distressed situation of the family so driven from their home 
may be easier felt than described. It brought on for a beginning 
the untimely death of an amiable wife, and deprived his five infant 
children of a mother's care whereby they for some time became 
objects of compassion which he was unable to rescue them from. 
Until he was exchanged and joined his Regiment (in January 1777) 
he thereafter continued to serve during the war. 

N. B. The Memorialist was appointed Second Oldest Captain 
in the 2nd Batt. 84th Regiment the 14 June 1775 and was reduced 
in October 1783 without a step of preferment in the Regt. or in the 
Line. 

Captain 4th Breadalbane Regt. of Fencibles 2nd Batt. 1 March 
1793; Major 17 Feb. 1794; Lieut. Col. 9 Dec. 1795; Regiment dis- 
banded 18 April 1799. He died at Edinburgh in Dec. 1799. 



Major Sir Duncan Campbell of Barcaldin*, Bart. C. V. O. 
Stewart, I 279; II, Appendix No. 11. 

John Campbell of Duneavis. 

John Campbell, of Duneaves, Perthshire, was originally a 
private in the Black Watch. In 1743, he was presented, with 
Gregor McGregor, to George II, as a specimen of the Highland 
soldier and performed at St. James the broadsword exercise and that 
of the Lochaber axe, before his Majesty and a number of General 
officers. Each got a gratuity of a guinea, which they gave to the 
porter at the gate of the palace as they passed out. Mr. Campbell 
obtained an Ensigncy in 1745 for his bravery at the battle of 
Fontenoy ; was promoted to be Captain-Lieutenant, 16th February, 
1756, and landed in New York the following June. He was among 
the few resolute men who forced their way into the work at 
Ticonderoga, on the 8th of July, where he was killed. 

John Campbell of Glendaruel. 

John Campbell of Glendaruel, born in 1721, was appointed 
Ensign of the 42nd Regt. of Foot 25th Sept., 1745; Lieutenant 16th 



68 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

May, 1748; Captain Lieut. 2nd July 1759; and Captain 20th July 
1760; Captain 27th or Inniskilling Regiment of Foot 25th March 
1762; Major Supt. of Indian Affairs in the Province of Quebec 2nd 
July, 1773; Lieut. Col. of Indian Affairs 29th August 1777; and 
Colonel 16th Nov. 1790. 

He married Marianna St. Lucan (date not given) and died 
Montreal, 23rd June 1795. 

"In the course of a long and meritorious service with his 
Regiment, the 42nd Highlanders, in all its campaigns from the 
Rebellion in 1745 to the attack on Ticonderoga, where he was 
wounded on the 8th July, 1758, and the conquest of Canada, Mar- 
tinique, and Havanna. He subsequently served in the expedition 
commanded by General Burgoyne, at the head of a number of 
Indians, and was distinguished for his spirited conduct as an officer, 
adorned by that elegance and politeness which mark the accom- 
plished gentleman and his virtues in private life endeared him to 
his family and companions. 

His remains were attended to the grave in a manner suitable 
to his rank. Not only by a very numerous assembly of citizens 
of all ranks, but by a large body of Indian warriors, whose very 
decent behavior evinced the sincerity with which they partook of 
the universal regret occasioned by the loss of so very respectable 
a member of society." 



Major Sir Duncan Campbell of Barcaldine, Bart. C. V. O. 

John Campbell of Strachur. 

John Campbell of Strachur, in the Highlands of Scotland, 
entered the Army in June, 1745, as Lieutenant of Loudon's High- 
landers; served through the Scotch Rebellion; made the Campaign 
in Flanders, 1747, and was promoted to a company on the 1st 
October of that year. At the peace of 1748, he went on Half -Pay 
and so remained until the 9th April, 1756, when he was appointed 
to the 42nd Highlanders previous to the embarcation of that Regi- 
ment for America. He was wounded in the attack on Ticonderoga 
in 1758, and was appointed by General Amherst Major of the 
17th Foot on the llth July, 1759; was promoted to be Lieutenant- 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEEOGA 69 

Colonel in the Army, 1st February, 1762 and commanded his Regi- 
ment in the expedition that year against Martinico and Havana. 
On the 1st May, 1773, he became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 57th 
or West Middlesex Foot, returned to America in 1776 with his 
Regiment at the breaking out of the Revolution; was appointed 
Maj. General 19th February, 1779, Colonel of his Regiment 2d 
November, 1780, and commanded the British Forces in West 
Florida, where after a gallant though ineffectual defence he was 
obliged to surrender Pensacola to the Spaniards 10th May, 1781. 
He became Lieutenant-General 28th September, 1787; General in 
the Army, 26th January, 1797, and died in the fore part of 1806. 



Brown, IV., 155, 159. 

Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders, I, 295, 306. 359. 370; II. 5, app. 
iii; Knox Journal, I, 373; II, 401; Beatson's Naval and Mil. Mem. V, 50, 226- 
233; VI, 274-280; Army Lists. Wilson's Orderly Book, page 94. 

Moses Campbell. 

A native of Scotland, joined the 42nd Regt. and was promoted 
Sergeant. 

Served with this Regiment throughout the war of French and 
Indians in America of 1756-63, discharged at the reduction, and 
settled with his family on a portion of Maj. Allan Campbell's 
(same Regt.) grant of land, situated on the south (bank) side of 
Lake Champlain, between Crown Point (about 5 miles above the 
point) and Ticonderoga. 

Also served (possibly in the Royal Highland Emigrants, bounty 
50s rendezvous Lake Champlain, 1775) in the War of Independence 
of 1775, (for which his property was confiscated, including boats.) 

He died in active (British) service on the 18th Feb. 1781. 

His widow, Elizabeth, and seven children claimed 366 pounds 
for losses, allowed 80 pounds. 

N. B. On behalf of her son, Alexander, (aged 21 years), 50 
pounds, who complained that one of the rebels was now living in 
his house, Feb. 1783. 

Gordon Graham. 

Gordon Graham of Drainie in the Highlands of Scotland, wa8 
appointed ensign in the 43rd Highlanders in Oct. 25, 1739, and was 



70 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

made lieutenant June 24, 1743. He served in Flanders and shared 
in the defeat at Fontenoy in 1745, after which the Regiment 
returned home. In 1747 he made another campaign in Flanders. 
On August 7, 1747, he was appointed captain. In 1749 the number 
of the regiment was changed to the 42d and Mr. Graham obtained 
a company in it 3d June, 1752, came to America in 1756, was at 
the surrender of Fort William Henry under Colonel Munro in 
1757, and was wounded at Ticonderoga in 1758. The Major of 
the Regiment having been killed on that occasion Captain Graham 
succeeded to the vacancy, July 17th, 1758, and made the campaign 
of 1759 and 1760 under Amherst. He next served in the West 
Indies in the expedition against Martinique and July 9, 1762, 
became Lieutenant Colonel of the Regiment, which returned to New 
York, and in the year 1763, proceeded to the relief of Fort Pitt, 
defeating the Indians on the way in the Battle of Bushy Run. In 
December, 1770, he retired after 31 years of service in the Regiment. 
As his name does not appear in the army list of 1771 it is presumed 
that he died at this time. 



Brown's Highland Clans IV, 139, 159. Beatson's Naval and Mil. Mem. 
II, 530. Wilson's Orderly Book, p. 14. 

John Graham. 

John Graham was the brother of Thomas; entered the 42nd 
regiment as Ensign and was promoted to a Lieutenancy 25th 
January, 1776; was wounded at Ticonderoga 1758; became Captain 
in February, 1762, and was again wounded at Bushy Run in 1763; 
shortly after which his company having been disbanded, he went 
on half pay. He rejoined the regiment 25th December, 1765, and 
is dropped in 1772, having attained the rank of field officer. 



Stewart I, 359, Army Lists. N. Y. Col. Manuscripts, p. 729, Vol. 10. 

Thomas Graham. 

Thomas Graham, or Graeme, of Duchay, entered the 43rd, or 
Black Watch, as Ensign June 30, 1741; was promoted to a Lieu- 
tenancy August 6, 1746, and obtained a company February 15, 
1756, shortly before the regiment, then the 42nd, came to America. 
He served in the several Campaigns on the northern lakes; was 




S o 



S.S 

11 

c 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 71 

wounded at Ticonderoga in 1758; was again wounded at the battle 
of Bushy Run, near Pittsburg, in 1763; served in the subsequent 
campaigns against the Indians, and embarked for Ireland in 1767. 
He succeeded Major Reid 31st March, 1770, and became Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel 12th December following. He retired from the army 
December, 1771, after 30 years of service. 



Army Lists. Stewart. N. T. Colonial Manuscripts, p. 729, Vol. 10. 

Francis Grant. 

Francis Grant, son of the Laird of Grant, and brother of Sir 
Ludovick Grant, of Grant, Scotland, was received from half-pay 
in Loudon's Regiment and was made ensign in the Black Watch 
Oct. 25, 1739. Nov. 5, 1739, he was made lieutenant; June 18, 
1743, captain; and Oct. 3, 1745, he became major. A vacancy 
occurring in the lieutenant-colonelcy, in December, 1755, the men 
of the Regiment subscribed a sum of money among themselves to 
purchase the step for him, but it was not required; he had already 
obtained his promotion. He accompanied the Regiment to America 
in 1756 and was present at the bloody battle of Ticonderoga, July 
8, 1758, where he was wounded. In the following year he accom- 
panied Amherst on his expedition, and in 1760 was in command 
of the van of the Army from Oswego to Montreal. In 1761 he 
commanded the Army sent to the south to chastise the Cherokees. 
He served as Brigadier-General in the expedition against Martinico 
in 1762, and on the 19th of February of that year became colonel 
in the army. On July 9, 1762, after twenty-three years of service 
in the Black Watch Regiment, he was removed and appointed to 
the command of the 90th Light Infantry. In August, 1762, he 
commanded the 4th Brigade at the siege of Havana and went on 
half pay at the peace of 1763. In November, 1768, he became colonel 
of the 63rd; Major-General in 1770; and Lieutenant-General in 
1777. He died at the beginning of 1782 (Army Lists). 

Lieut.-Gen. Grant's daughter was married to the Hon. and Rt. 
Rev. George Murray, fourth son of the Duke of Athol, and Bishop 
of St. David's. 



Brown's Highland Clans, IV, 155. 
Knox's Journal, II, 404, 410, 465. 
Beateon N. and M., Mem. Ill, 363, 359. 
Debrett's Peerage. Wilson's Orderly Book, p. 3. 



72 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

James Grant. 

James Grant, appointed Ensign, Nov. 20, 1746; Lieutenant, 
Jan. 22, 1756; Captain, Dec. 26, 1760; removed Aug. 13, 1762, 
after 16 years of service in the Regiment and was made Fort-Major 
Limerick. Died in 1778. He was wounded at Tioonderoga. 



Stewart of Garth, Appendix. 

William Grant. 

William Grant, appointed Ensign, Oct. 1, 1745; Lieutenant, 
May 22, 1746; Captain, July 23, 1758; Major, Dec. 5, 1777; retired 
August, 1778, after 33 years of service with rank of Brevet Lieut- 
Colonel. He was wounded at the battle of Ticonderoga. 



Stewart of Garth, Appendix. 

James Gray. 

James Gray was taken from the Half-pay list and appointed 
Lieutenant in the 42nd Royal Highlanders 30th January, 1756. 
His name is omitted in the Army List of 1765. 



Stewart's Highlanders. Wilson's Orderly Book, page 83. 

Robert Gray. 

Robert Gray, appointed Ensign, June 6, 1745 ; Lieutenant, June 
9, 1747; Captain, July 22, 1758. He was wounded at Ticonderoga. 
Aug. 2, 1759, after 14 years of service in the Regiment, he was 
promoted to the 55th Regiment. He died in 1771 with rank of 
Lieut.-Colonel. 



Stewurt f Garth, Appendix. 

Alexander Mclntosh. 

Alexander Mclntosh was taken from half pay in 1756 and 
appointed Lieutenant in the 42nd. He was wounded at Ticonderoga, 
1758, and again at Martinico in 1762, and was promoted to a 
company 24th July of the same year. He went on half pay in 1763 
and was not again called on active service until 25th December, 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 73 

1770, when he was appointed to the 10th regiment then serving in 
America. Captain Mclntosh was killed at the storming of Fort 
Washington, 16th November, 1776. 



Army Lists. Beateon's Naval and Military Memoirs. N. T. Colonial 
Manuscripts, p. 729. Vol. 10. 

Norman McLeod. 

Norman McLeod entered the army as ensign of the 42d January 
1756, and was promoted to Lieutenancy in the 69th in June 1761. 
At the peace of 1763 he elected to remain in this country and 
received 3,000 acres of land and retired on half pay. Sometime 
later he was appointed Commissioner at Niagara under Sir William 
Johnson. At the breaking out of the War of the Revolution he 
offered his services to Governor Martin of North Carolina. Later 
lie was captured and was a prisoner for about five years. 



"Wm. M. McBean, Secy. St. Andrew's Society of the State of New York. 

John MacNeil. 

John MacNeil was appointed ensign, Aug. 6, 1742, lieutenant 
Oct. 10, 1745; Captain, Dec. 16, 1752; Major, July 9, 1762. He 
died at the siege of Havana in 1762 after 20 years of service in the 
Regiment. 



Stewart of Garth, Appendix. 

David Milne. 



David Mill, or Milne, received a commission as Lieutenant in 
this Corps 19th July, 1757; was wounded at Ticonderoga in 1758, 
and again at Martinique in 1762; retired from the army at the 
peace of 1763. 



N. T. Colonial Manuscripts, p. 729, Vol. 10. 



James Murray. 

James Murray, second son of Lord George Murray, by his 
marriage with Amelia Murray, heiress of Strowan and Glencaree, 
and grandson of the first Duke of Atholl, was bora at Tulhbardme 



74 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

on the 19th of March, 1734, and it is interesting to know that Lord 
John Murray, who was destined in after years to be his colonel, 
was called upon to be his godfather. A commission as Lieutenant 
in the Saxon Grenadier Guards was obtained for him in 1749, and 
he joined his regiment in 1751. He served against the forces of 
Frederick the Great until the Saxon Army capitulated at Pirna on 
the Elbe in October, 1756. He was released on parole and returned 
to Scotland in 1757 and on the nomination of his uncle, James 
Duke of Atholl, was given a captain's commission in the Black 
Watch and was placed in command of one of the three additional 
companies then being raised for service in America. He reached 
New York in April, 1758, and commanded Captain Reid's company 
in the unsuccessful attack on Ticonderoga his own company hav- 
ing been left in garrison at Fort Edward. He was wounded but 
was) soon able to return to duty and took part in the successful 
expedition of 1759 to Lake Champlain. Toward the close of that 
year he was given command by Lord John Murray's desire of 
the Grenadier Company of the newly-raised 2nd Battalion, and 
with this battalion he served in the advance on Montreal in 1760 
and in the capture of Martinique in 1762. He was wounded here 
and invalided home and was on sick leave for more than six years.* 
He rejoined the Black Watch in 1768 and in 1769 was appointed 
Captain-lieutenant in the 3rd Foot Guards, obtaining his promotion 
as Captain and Lieutenant-colonel the following year. In 1772 he 
was elected member of Parliament for Perthshire, a position which 
he held for twenty-two years. He was appointed Governor of 
Upnor Castle in 1775 and Fort William in 1780, but these were 
merely nominal posts and did not interfere with his other duties. 
In 1776 he bought Strowan (originally the property of his mother), 
from his nephew, the fourth Duke of Atholl. 

On the outbreak of the War of Independence, Col. Murray 
offered to raise a regiment of Highlanders for service in America, 
but this offer was refused, and in March, 1777, he was sent out to 
join the brigade of Guards under General Howe in New Jersey. 
He was with Lord Cornwallis at Quibbletown and presumably took 
part in the actions at Brandy wine and Germantown in 1777. He 
spent the following winter in quarters at Philadelphia, and left 
America in the summer of 1778 and joined the Atholl Highlanders 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 75 

in Ireland in September of that year, of which regiment he was 
given the command. This regiment remained in Ireland during 
the war, at the conclusion of which it was disbanded. James 
Murray was appointed Lieutenant-colonel-commandant of the 78th 
Highlanders in 1783, but as he was already a general officer he 
never did any duty with this regiment. After 1783 General 
Murray resided a good deal at Strowan; in 1786 he was promoted 
full Colonel of the 78th (by that time the 72nd) , and in 1793 he was 
made Lieutenant-general. In March, 1794, he felt himself obliged 
to resign his seat in Parliament owing to ill health and a few days 
later on the 19th of March he died in London and was buried 
in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

Of Lord George Murray's three sons, General James seems to 
have been the one who most resembled his father. He had inherited 
the Jacobite General's sympathetic knowledge of Highland charac- 
ter, something of his pride, and the same affectionate disposition. 
And that he had at least a share of his father's determination, 
and presence of mind is shown by two anecdotes which have 
been handed down with regard to him. One of these refers to his 
earlier days, and is to the effect that, having been attacked by a 
highwayman one night that he was driving over a heath near 
London, he leant out of the window of the chaise, "groped in the 
dark for the ears of his assailant's horse," and with the brief but 
expressive exclamation. "Thereut's-" fired a shot which ended the 
highwayman's career. The other relates that during the Gordon 
Riots of 1780 Colonel James Murray was seated next Lord George 
Gordon in the House of Commons at the very moment at which the 
mob threatened to break into the House. Colonel Murray with a 
soldier's instinct drew his sword, pointed it at Lord George, and 
notwithstanding that he was his cousin, declared his intention of 



Army Lists: Brown's Highl. Clans, IV, 159, 300, 304, 306. Wilson's 
Orderly Book, p. 67. Military History of Perthshire, p. 411-413. 

Stewart of Garth gives the following: in regard to General Murray's 
wound, received at the capture of Martinique; (page 126, Vol. 10.) 

"The musket ball entered his left side, under the lower rib , Passed 1 up 
through the left lobe of the lung, (as ascertained after his deati h) cross* 
his chest, and mounting up to his right shoulder, lodged under the scapula 
His case being considered desperate, the only object of th .f^* 6 .?" 
to make his situation as easy as possible for the few hours they PP"d 
he had to live; but, to the great surprise of all, he i was on .his legs in a 
few weeks, and, before he reached England, was SJJS**SS**4* 
least his health and appetite were restored. He was "r afterwards- 
however, able to lie down; and during the thirty-two yea no f h_ ' f ub e - 
quent life, he slept in an upright posture, supported in hia bed by pillows. 



76 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

running him through the body if a single one of the rioters should 
enter. His promptness saved the situation, but he had committed 
a breach of the privileges of the House and was ordered to apologize 
on bended knee to the Speaker. Colonel Murray made the required 
amende, but on rising from his knee took out his handkerchief and 
dusted it, remarking, "Damned Dirty House this; sooner it's cleaned 
out the better." 

Lord John Murray. 

Lord John Murray, born on the 14th of April, 1711, was the 
eldest son of John, first Duke of Atholl, by his second wife, the 
Hon. Mary Ross, and half-brother to John, Marquess of Tullibar- 
dine, and Lord George Murray. He became an ensign in the 3rd 
Foot Guards (now the Scots Guards) in 1727, and a captain in the 
same regiment in 1738. Immediately after the mutiny of the 
regiment in 1743 he applied for the colonelcy in the 42nd or Black 
Watch, but he did not obtain the appointment he so greatly desired 
until two years later. In July, 1743, he was appointed first aide- 
de-camp to George II and was in attendance on the King in 
Germany at the close of the Dettingen campaign, but returned to 
England without having taken part in any engagements. In April 
1745, when at last gazetted colonel of the Black Watch, he 
proceeded to join his regiment in Flanders, but arrived too late 
for Fontenoy. He distinguished himself, however, during the 
subsequent retreat of the British army to Brussels, by his defence of 
a pass which the French attacked by night. For this service he was 
publicly thanked by the Duke of Cumberland. In 1745 he returned 
home with his regiment but in 1747 he was in the Netherlands 
taking part in the attempted relief of Hulst. After the surrender 
of the town by the Dutch Governor, Lord John commanded the rear- 
guard in the retreat to Welsharden, and shortly afterwards, having 
been ordered to take part in the defence of Bergen-op-Zoom, he 
was placed in command of the British troops in the lines there. At 
the close of operations he received a message of approbation from 
the King. 

In 1755 he was promoted major-general, and in 1758 lieuten- 
ant-general, but although he offered his services more than once, 
he was not employed abroad during the Seven Years' War. He 
took the keenest interest, however, in all the exploits of his regiment 




From "A Military History of Perthshire' 
Lord John Murray, Colonel the Black Watch, 1745 to 1787 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 77 

and worked hard to raise a second battalion in 1758. Stewart 
of Garth tells us that when the men who had been disabled at 
Ticonderoga appeared before the Board of Chelsea to claim their 
pensions, Lord John went with them and explained their case in 
such a manner to the commissioners that they were all successful. 
He gave them money, got them a free passage to Perth, and 
offered a house and garden to all who chose to settle on his estate. 
General Stewart also describes how, when the 42nd at last returned 
from America in 1767, Lord John, who had been for weeks at Cork 
awaiting its arrival, marched into that town at its head. 

Lord John was a great deal with the regiment while it was 
quartered in Ireland, and, according to Stewart of Garth, was 
"ever attentive to the interest of the officers and vigilant that 
their promotion should not be interrupted by ministerial or other 
influence." He was also "unremitting in his exertions to procure 
the appointment of good officers, and of officers who understood 
perfectly the peculiar dispositions and character of the men." For 
this reason he strenuously endeavored to exclude all but the mem- 
bers of Scots and more especially Highland families. He was 
equally particular that only Gaelic-speaking men and Protestants 
should be recruited for the ranks. 

In spite of his military duties Lord John resided a good deal 
in the country and not only at the home of his boyhood for 
early in life he bought Pitnacree in Strathtay, and in later years 
he had also a house in Perth. He represented Perthshire in Par- 
liament from 1734 to 1761. In 1758 he married Miss Dalton of 
Bannercross a Derbyshire heiress, by whom he had one daughter. 
In 1770 he became a full general. His last military achievement 
was the raising in 1779 and 1780 (at his own expense) of another 
second battalion to the 42nd. This battalion so distinguished itself 
in India that in 1786 it was placed permanently on the establish- 
ment under the title of the 73rd Regiment, the veteran to whose 
patriotism it owed its existence died on the 26th day of May, 1787, 
at the age of seventy-six, the senior officer in the Army. 

Lord John made the most of such chances as occurred of 
distinguishing himself in the field, but those opportunities were 
small for he never served in any war but the Austrian Succession. 



78 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

It is therefore as the Colonel of the Black Watch that his name has 
survived as a man who understood the Highland soldiers well 
enough to wish to command them at a time when to many that 
might have seemed a task of great difficulty and who, having at 
last obtained the post he desired, completely identified himself 
with the interests of his men, and for upwards of half a century 
was the "friend and supporter of every deserving officer and soldier 
in the regiment." 



Military History of Perthshire, page 382-384. 

John Reid. 

John Reid was the eldest son of Alexander Robertson of 
Straloch, but the head of the family had always been known as 
"Baron Reid" and the General and his younger brother, Alexander 
(who was an officer in the 42nd), adopted the more distinctive 
surname early in life. He was born at Inverchroskie in Strathardle, 
on the 13th of February, 1721, and received his early education 
at Perth. Being destined for the law, he was afterwards sent to 
Edinburgh University. Nature, however, had intended him for a 
soldier, and in June, 1745, having recruited the necessary quota 
of men, he obtained a commission as lieutenant in Loudon's 
Highlanders. He was taken prisoner at Prestonpans the following 
September, but when released the following spring he rejoined his 
regiment and was able to render important service to the Govern- 
ment. From 1747 to 1748 he served in Flanders with Loudon's 
Highlanders and took part in the defence of Bergen-op-Zoom, but 
on the reduction of his regiment at the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle he 
was placed on half-pay. In 1751 he bought a captain-lieutenant's 
commission in the Black Watch and in 1752 a commission as 
captain in the same regiment. Four years later on the outbreak of 
the war with France, he sailed with his regiment to America. He 
was not present at the first attack on Ticonderoga as he had been 
left behind sick at Albany, and his company was commanded in 
that desperate engagement by Captain James Murray. In 1759, 
Reid, by that time a major, took part in the second advance to 
Lake Champlain, which resulted in the surrender of Forts Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point; and on him devolved the command of 
the 42nd during the greater part of the campaign of 1760 which. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 79 

ended with the capture of Montreal and the expulsion of the French 
from Canada. 

Reid remained in America with the 42nd until Dec., 1761, 
when he accompanied it to the West Indies. He served in the 
capture of Martinique and at the storming of Morne Tortenson, 
on Jan. 24, 1762, was in command of the 1st Battalion of his 
regiment. His battalion suffered heavy loss and he was wounded 
in two places, but recovered in time to take part in the expedition 
against Havana of that same year. After the surrender of Cuba 
he returned to America. In 1764 Reid acted as second-in-command 
of Colonel Bouquet's arduous but successful expedition against the 
Indians on the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers. In the following year 
we hear of him fitting out an expedition which was to be sent to 
the Illinois country under the command of Captain Thomas Stirling 
of the 42nd. 

About 1760, Reid married an American lady of Scots descent, 
Susanna Alexander, daughter of James Alexander, surveyor-general 
of New York and New Jersey. She owned property on Otter 
Creek in what is now the State of Vermont, which was added to 
and improved by her husband with the result that at the end of 
ten years Reid owned "about thirty-five thousand acres of very 
valuable land" near Crown Point and had "obtained from the 
Governor and Council of New York a warrant of survey for fifteen 
thousand more," which he intended to "erect" into a manor. 

In 1767 the Royal Highland Regiment left America for Ireland 
and Reid presumably accompanied it. In 1770 Reid retired on 
half -pay, intending no doubt to settle down to the enjoyment and 
improvement of his American estates. However, in 1772 his 
tenants were expelled by the people of Bennington "on the pretence 
of having claim to that country under the Government of New 
Hampshire, notwithstanding that the King in Council had, ten 
years before, decreed Connecticut River to be the Eastern Boundary 
of New York." In 1775 war broke out with the American colonists, 
and though his case finally came before the Commissioners for 
American Claims, the only compensation awarded him was a trifling 
allowance for mills he had erected and for fees he had paid for 
surveys. In May, 1778 his father's estate, Straloch, passed under 



80 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

the hammer as he was unable to pay the mortgages and his son 
could give him no help. 

Notwithstanding that he was a comparatively poor man, in 
1779-1780 Reid raised at his own expense a regiment of foot, of 
which he was appointed colonel. This was called the 95th and was 
disbanded in 1783. In 1781 Reid was promoted major-general, and 
in 1793 a lieutenant-general. He was appointed colonel of the 88th 
Regiment (Connaught Rangers) in November, 1794, and became a 
general in 1798. In 1803, when an invasion was hourly expected, 
Reid, in response to an order that all general officers not employed 
on the staff should transmit their addresses to the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, wrote that though in the eighty-second years of his age "and 
very deaf and infirm," he was still ready to use his feeble arm in 
defence of his country. He died in the Haymarket on the 6th of 
February, 1807, and was buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

The General would probably have had but little property to 
dispose of at his death, had he not in 1796 succeeded to a valuable 
estate of some four or five thousand acres in Nova Scotia, which 
was left to him by his cousin, Gen. John Small, "as a mark of .... 
respect .... and attachment to the preservation of his name and 
representation for succeeding ages." Reid's daughter had made a 
marriage of which he disapproved, she had no children, and his 
only brother had died in 1762 during the siege of Havana. It was 
probably these circumstances that induced him to realize the 
property in Nova Scotia and at the time of his death he was worth 
some 52,000. This entire fortune, went after the death of his 
daughter, to the University of Edinburgh to found a musical 
professorship. He also left directions that a concert should be given 
annually on or about his birthday to commence with several pieces 
of his own composition, among the first of which is that of the 
"Garb of Old Gaul," a composition written by Sir Charles Erskine, 
but set to music by Reid while major of the 42nd, and which has 
ever sence been a regimental march. 

Reid also composed several military marches and was esteemed 
the best gentleman player on the German flute in England. It may 

N. T. Documentary History IV. 

Military History of Perthshire pp. 387-395. 




From "A Military History of Perthshire' 
Officers in the Black Watch 1758-9 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 81 

safely be predicted that as long as the University exists this old 
Perthshire soldier of the 18th century will be remembered as one 
of its benefactors. 

John Small. 

John Small was the third son of Patrick Small, who married 
Magdalen Robertson, sister of Alexander Robertson, the father of 
General John Reid. Reid and Small were thus not only neighbors 
and brother-officers, but first cousins, and were evidently on terms 
of close friendship. Born in Strathardle, Atholl, Scotland, in 
1730, Small, like many of his countrymen of that date, began his 
military career with the Scots Brigade in Holland, being appointed 
a 2nd lieutenant in the Earl of Drumlanrig's Regiment when it was 
raised for service of the States-General in 1747. How long he 
remained abroad is unknown but it is probable that he returned to 
England when the regiment was reduced in 1752. He did not, 
however, obtain a commission in the British army until four years 
later, when he was appointed lieutenant in the 42nd, just prior to 
its departure for America. So far as is known, Small took part 
in all the campaigns in which his regiment was engaged from 1756 
to 1763. He fought at Ticonderoga in 1758, served with General 
Amherst's successful expedition to Lake Champlain in the following 
year, and took part in the operations which completed the conquest 
of Canada in 1760. After the surrender of Montreal he was sent 
in charge of French prisoners to New York, and we learn from 
a brother officer that General Amherst had great confidence in him, 
and frequently employed him "on particular services." Two years 
later he served in the capture of Martinique and Havana and 
obtained his promotion as captain. 

At the peace of 1763 Small was placed on half-pay, but, 
according to General Stewart, he was almost immediately put on 
the full-pay list of the North British Fusiliers (21st) and when in 
1767 the Black Watch left for Europe, most of the men of that 
regiment who had volunteered to stay in America joined the Fusi- 
liers in order to serve under Small, who was "deservedly popular" 
with them. Small, however, cannot have served long with the 21st, 
for in the same year in which the Black Watch left America he 
was appointed "major of brigade" to the forces in North America. 



82 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

It was probably during the interval between the Seven Years' War 
and the war with the Americans that he began to acquire the 
property in Nova Scotia, part of which he afterwards bequeathed 
to his cousin, John Reid. We have some indication that during 
this period he interested himself in local politics and formed the 
friendship of at least one American which was of value to him later. 

Small served throughout the War of Independence though but 
rare glimpses are obtained of him. He was present as a brigade- 
major at the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1777, and in the course 
of that day his life was saved by the American General Putnam, 
who, seeing Small standing alone at a time when all around him 
had fallen, struck up the barrels of his men's muskets to save 
his life. Shortly after this, Small raised the 2nd battalion of the 
Royal Highland Regiment and was appointed major-commandant. 
In 1778 the regiment was numbered the 84th and in 1780 he was 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel-commandant of his battalion. He is 
said to have joined Sir Henry Clinton at New York in 1779, but it 
is more probable that he was stationed for the most part in Nova 
Scotia. In March, 1783, Small and his battalion were at Fort 
Edward, New York, and in the following autumn the battalion was 
disbanded at Windsor, Nova Scotia, where many of the men settled 
and formed the present town of Douglas. 

Small, once more on half-pay, returned home and in 1790 was 
promoted colonel and three years later was appointed lieutenant 
governor of Guernsey. In October, 1794, he became major-general 
and on the 17th of March, 1796, he died in Guernsey and was 
buried in the church of St. Peter Port. 

General Stewart of Garth wrote of General John Small that 
"No chief of former days ever more fairly secured the attachment 
of his clan, and no chief, certainly, ever deserved it better. With 
an enthusiastic and almost romantic love for his country and coun- 
trymen, it seemed as if the principal object of his life had been to 
serve them, and promote prosperity. Equally brave in leading 
them in the field, and kind, just, and conciliating in quarters, they 
would have indeed been ungrateful if they regarded him otherwise 



Stewart II. 143. Military Hist., of Perthshire, pp. 396-399. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 83 

than as they did. There was not an instance of desertion in his 
battalion." 

James Stewart of Urrard. 

James Stewart of Urrard, obtained a company in the 42nd, 
July 18th, 1757. He was wounded at Ticonderoga, 1758. He sold 
out after the peace. 



Stewart I, 306, 359. N. T. Col. MSS., p. 729, Vol. 10. 

Thomas Stirling. 

Thomas Stirling, second son of Sir Henry Stirling, of Ardoch, 
was born October 8, 1731. He began his military career in the 
Dutch service, being given a commission as ensign in the 1st 
Battalion of Col. Marjoribanks' Regiment on the 30th of September, 
1747, and was probably placed on half-pay when the establishment 
of the Scots Brigade was reduced in 1752. On the 24th of July, 
1757, having been nominated by James, Duke of Atholl, and having 
raised the requisite number of men, he was gazetted captain of one 
of the three companies added to the 42nd in that year. In 
November, 1757, he sailed for America, where he served with his 
regiment in the campaigns of the ensuing years, though he was not 
present at the first attack on Ticonderoga, owing to the fact that 
the new companies had been left behind to garrison Fort Edward. 
He took part in the capture of Martinique in 1762 and was wounded 
but was able to serve in the capture of Havana later in that year. 
He returned with his regiment to America and in August, 1765, 
was sent in command of a company to take possession of Fort de 
Chartes on the Mississippi. After holding this fort that winter 
and spring, he returned with his detachment to the regiment in 
June, 1766. The following year the 42nd left America and for 
upwards of eight years was quartered in Ireland, after which it was 
for a short time" in Scotland. In 1770 Stirling was gazetted major 
of the regiment, and 1771 lieutenant-Colonel-commandant. Hos- 
tilities broke out with the Americans in 1775, and, Stirling, having 
in five months raised the strength of his regiment from 350 men to 
1.200, returned with it in the following spring to America, where 
he commanded it continuously for three years during the war. He 
took part in the engagement at Brooklyn, the attack on Fort 



84 NEW YOBK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Washington, the expedition to Pennsylvania, battle of Monmouth, 
and others. During 1778-9 he was stationed at or near New York. 
In June, 1779, he accompanied a force under General Mathews 
through New Jersey in an attempt to rally the supposed loyalists 
of that state. This was unsuccessful and ended in the destruction 
of the town of Springfield. General Stirling was so severely 
wounded while leading the attack that he could take no further 
part in the war. His thigh was broken and fearing to be rendered 
incapable of further service he refused to have it amputated. He 
recovered and was 1 invalided home but he does not appear after this 
to have been ever again fit for active duty. In 1782 he was 
promoted major-general and appointed colonel of the 71st Foot, but 
his regiment was disbanded the following year. His services were 
rewarded with a baronetcy and in 1790, he became colonel of the 
41st Regiment. In 1796 he was promoted lieutenant-general, and 
in 1799 he succeeded his brother in the baronetcy of Ardock. He 
attained the rank of general in 1801 and died unmarried on the 
9th of May, 1808. 

Kenneth Tolmie. 

Kenneth Tolmie was commissioned a lieutenant in the 42nd 
Highlanders, 23rd January, 1756, and promoted to the Command 
of a Company 27th July, 1760. His name is dropped after the 
Peace of 1763. 



Wilson's Orderly Book, p. 166. 

Alexander TurnbuU. 

Alexander Turnbull of Stracathro, appointed ensign, June 3, 
1752; lieutenant, Sept. 27, 1756; captain, Aug. 14, 1762. After 11 
years of service, he went on half -pay in 1763 ; full pay of the 32nd 
Foot. He died in 1804 with rank of major. 



Stewart of Garth, Appendix. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 85 

K 

ORIGINAL REGIMENTAL LIST OF THE BLACK WATCH. 

From A Military History of Perthshire, pages 51, 52, and 
The Black Watch Chronicle, 1913, pages 6-8. 

No. 1 Company. 

Colonel and Captain John, Earl of Crawford. Died 1748. 
Captain-Lieutenant Duncan Mackfarland. Retired 1744. 
Ensign Gilbert Stewart of Kincraigie. 

No. 2 Company. 

Lieutenant-Colonel and Captain Sir Robert Munro, Bart., of Foulis. 

Killed at Falkirk 1746. 
Lieutenant Paul Macferson. 
Ensign Archibald Macknab, younger son of the Laird of Macnab. 

Died Lieut. General, 1790. 

No. 3 Company. 

Major and Captain George Grant. Removed from the service by 

sentence of Court-martial, 1746. 

Lieutenant John MacKenzie of Rencraig (?Kincraig). 
Ensign Collin Campbell. 

No. 4 Company. 

Captain Collin Campbell, Jr., of Monzie. Retired 1743. 
Lieutenant Alexander Macdonald 

Ensign James Campbell of Glenfalloch. Died of wounds at Fon- 
tenoy. 

No. 5 Company. 

Captain James Colquhoun of Luss. Promoted to be Major. Re- 
tired in 1748. 

Lieutenant George Ramsay. 
Ensign James Campbell of Stronslanie. 1 



86 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

No. 6 Company. 

Captain John Campbell of Carrick. Killed at Fontenoy. 
Lieutenant John MacLean of Kingairloch. 
Ensign Dougall Stewart (of Appin?). 

No. 7 Company. 

Captain Collin Campbell of Balliemore. Retired. 

Lieutenant Malcom Frazer, son of Culduthel." Killed at Bergen-op- 

Zoom, 1747. 
Ensign Dougal Stewart. 

No. 8 Company. 

Captain George Munro of Culcairn, brother of Foulis. Killed 1746. 
Lieutenant Lewis Grant of Auchterblair. 
Ensign John Menzies of Comrie. 

No. 9 Company. 

Captain Dougal Campbell of Craignish. Retired in 1745. 

Lieutenant John Mackneil. 

Ensign Gordon Graham of Draines. 3 

No. 10 Company. 

Captain John Monro of Newmore. Promoted to be Lt. Col. 1743; 

retired 1749. 
Lieutenant Francis Grant, son of the Laird of Grant.* Died Lieut.- 

General 1782. 
Ensign Edward Carrick. 
Surgeon George Monro. 
Quarter Master John Forbes. 
Chaplain Hon. Gideon Murray. 
Adjutant John Lindsay. 5 



1. Stewart of Garth calls him Dougal Campbell, but he appears as 
James in his commission. 

2. It is not stated to which companies Lieutenant Malcolm Frajer and 
Francis Grant belonged. No other lieutenants are mentioned for Bailie- 
more and Newmore; they have therefore been assigned respectively to them. 

3. i. e. Drynie. A younger son of the Laird. 

4. See note to Lieutenant Malcolm Fraser. 

6. Garth gives the adjutant as being Gilbert Stewart (presumably the 
ensign to the Colonel's Company.) He probably acted in this capacity until 
John Lindsay was gazetted to the regiment. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



87 



OFFICERS OF THE 42ND ROYAL HIGHLAND REGIMENT 

AS COPIED FROM THE BRITISH ARMY LIST, 

PUBLISHED 20TH JUNE, 1759. 

Col. Lord Jno. Murray, Lt. Gen. 



Lt. Col. Francis Grant. 
Major Gordon Graham. 
Capt. John Reid. 
Capt. John McNeil. 
Capt. Allan Campbell. 
Capt. Thomas Graeme. 
Capt. James Abercrombie. 
Capt. John Campbell. 
Capt. James Stewart. 
Capt. James Murray. 
Capt. Thomas Stirling. 
Capt. Francis McLean. 
Capt. Archibald Campbell. 
Capt. Alexander St. Clair. 
Capt. William Murray. 
Capt. John Stuart. 
Capt. Alexander Reid. 
Capt. William Grant. 
Capt. David Haldane. 
Capt. Lieut. Robert Gray. 
Lieut. John Campbell. 
Lieut. Kenneth Tolme. 
Lieut. James Grant. 
Lieut. John Graham. 
Lieut. Alex. Turnbull. 
Lieut. Alex. Campbell. 
Lieut. Alex. Mclntosh. 
Lieut. James Gray. 
Lieut. John Small. 
Lieut. Arch. Campbell, Sen. 
Lieut. James Campbell. 
Lieut. Archibald Lament. 



Lieut. Gordon Clunes. 
Lieut. James Fraser. 
Lieut. John Robertson. 
Lieut. John Grant. 
Lieut. George Leslie. 
Lieut. Duncan Campbell. 
Lieut. Adam Stuart. 
Lieut. Donald Campbell. 
Lieut. George Grant. 
Lieut. James Mclntosh. 
Lieut. Robert Robertson. 
Lieut. John Smith. 
Lieut. Peter Grant. 
Lieut. Alex. Farquharson. 
Lieut. John Campbell, Jr. 
Lieut. George Sinclair. 
Ensign Elbert Herring. 
Ensign William Brown. 
Ensign Thomas Fletcher. 
Ensign Alex. Donaldson. 
Ensign William Mclntosh. 
Ensign Patrick Sinclair. 
Ensign Archibald Campbell, Jun 
Ensign John Gregor. 
Ensign Lewis Grant. 
Ensign Archibald Campbell, Sen 
Ensign John Graham. 
Ensign Allen Grant. 
Ensign John Leith. 
Ensign Charles Menzies. 
Ensign Archibald McNab. 
Ensign John Chas. St. Clair. 



88 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Lieut. David Mills. Ensign John Gordon. 

Lieut. Simon Blair. Ensign Neil McLean. 

Lieut. David Barclay. Ensign Thomas Cunison. 
Lieut. Archibald Campbell, Jr. Sergt. Phineas McPherson. 

Lieut. Alex Mackay. Chaplain James Stewart. 

Lieut. Robert Menzies. Adj. James Grant. 

Lieut. Patrick Balneavis. Aldj. Alex McLean. 

Lieut. John Campbell, Sen. Quarter Master John Graham. 

Lieut. Alex. McLean. Quarter Master Adam Stewart. 

Lieut. George Sinclair. Surgeon David Hepburn. 

Lieut. John Murray. Surgeon Robt. Drummond. 

Agt., Mr. Drummond, Spring Garden. 



The following corrections were interlined in ink in the above Army 
List of 1759, which was found in the British Museum: 

Capt. John Reid was made Major. Augr. 5, 1759. 

Capt. John Campbell, removed to the 17th. 

Capt. David Haldane, removed to a Regiment at Jamaica. 

Lieut. Alexander McLean, made captain of corps of Highlanders. 

Lieut. George Sinclair, dead. 

Lieut. George Sinclair, removed to Crawford's Regiment. 

Ensign Thomas Fletcher, made lieutenant June 1, 1759. 

Ensign William Mclntosh, removed to Keith's Corps. 

Sergt. Phineas McPherson, made ensign June 1, 1759. 

Lauchlan Johnson, made chaplain 20th August, 1759, in place of James 
Stewart. 

Alexander Donaldson, made adjutant 20th March, 1759, in place of 
Alexander McLean. 



REFERENCES TO THE BLACK WATCH IN THE 1769 

CAMPAIGN TAKEN FROM "COMMISSARY 

WILSON'S ORDERLY BOOK." 

Albany, 22 May, 1759. Two companies of the Royal Highland 
Regiment are also to receive batteaux and load them with provision 
and baggage. A sergeant and 12 men of the Rhode Island Regiment 
are to relieve a party of the Royal Highland Regiment at the Half- 
Way House on the way to Schenectady; they are to march tomor- 
row morning and carry six days' provision with them. 

Albany, 23d May, 1759. Three captains of the Royal High- 
landers summoned among others to a general Court Martial, of 
which Col. Francis Grant was President, to set tomorrow at the 
Town House in Albany at 3 o'clock to try all prisoners that may 
be brought before them. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 89 

Albany, 26th May, 1759. An officer and 25 men of the Royal 
Highland Regiment with a week's provision to be sent this after- 
noon to Widow McGinnes House to protect settlement; one 
Company of the Royal Highland Regiment to march tomorrow 
morning at 5 o'clock ; they will take their tents and camp equipage 
with them, for which a wagon will be allowed on sending to Col. 
Bradstreet for it; the officer commanding that company to call 
upon the General this night. The General Court Martial of which 
Col. Grant is President to meet again tomorrow at 8 o'clock. 

Albany, 31st May, 1759. The Royal Highland Regiment to 
march tomorrow morning at 5 o'clock to Halfmoon, where they 
will take the artillery under their charge and escort the same to 
Fort Edward. 

Fort Edward, 6th June, 1759. Lieut. Col. Robinson will mark 
out the Camp tomorrow morning at 5 o'clock that the Regiments 
may take up their ground as they arrive; the Regiments to encamp 
* * * Royal Highlanders on the right. A Serj. and 16 men of ye 
Royal Highlanders to take the General's Guard. 

Fort Edward, 7th June, 1759. The Regiments are not to 
change their encampment until the ground be quite dry. 

Fort Edward, 8th June, 1759. The Regiments to change their 
encampment this day at 12 o'clock. 

Fort Edward, 9th June, 1759. Field Officer for the Picquit 
tomorrow, Major Graham. The Light infantry of the Highland 
Regiment is to practice firing ball tomorrow morning at 6 o'clock, 
near the Royal Block House on the other side of the river. 

The Royal Highland Regiment to furnish 2 captains, 6 subs., 
and 200 men * * * ; this detachment to take batteaux tomorrow 
morning at day break. The Royal Highland Regiment to take 20 
batteaux, and 60 of the 200 men with arms to serve as a covering 
party. The whole to take provisions for tomorrow with them; they 
are to proceed to Col. Haviland's Camp, opposite to Fort Miller, 
where the commanding officer will apply to Col. Haviland who will 
order the batteaux to be immediately loaded, that the whole party 
may return to Fort Edward without loss of time. 



90 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Fort Edward, 10th June, 1759. Field Officer for the Picquit 
this night Major (Gordon) Graham, for tomorrow Major (Allen) 
Campbell, Colonel of the day, Col. (Francis) Grant. Two cap- 
tains of the Royal Highlanders to sit with others in General Court 
Martial tomorrow morning at 8 o'clock, to try such prisoners as 
are on the Provost Guard. The Royal Highlanders and Mont- 
gomery's Regiments to send as many men this afternoon at 4 
o'clock as are necessary to clean the ground where the Light In- 
fantry is to encamp. They will receive axes on applying to the 
store-keeper in the Fort, which they will return when they have 
finished that work. 

Fort Edward, llth June, 1759. Colo, of the day, Col. Grant, 
Field Officer of the Picquits, Major Campbell. 

Fort Edward, 12th June, 1759. Block Houses to be relieved 
tomorrow by the Line * * * the one joining the east side of the 
Bridge by 1 Sub., 2 Serjts., 2 corpls. and 24 men of the Royal 
Highlanders; the one in the front of the Right of the Royal, one 
Serjt., one Corpl. and 10 men of the Royal Highlanders. 

Fort Edward, 13th June, 1759. The Royal Highland Regiment 
to strick their tents tomorrow at Revallie Beating. The Royal 
Highlanders posted in their Block Houses as per ordered of yes- 
terday, to be relieved immediately. 

Fort Edward, 17th June. The First Battalion Massachusetts 
to strike their tents at Revallie Beating and march half an hour 
after to the Halfway Brook where the commanding officer will put 
himself under the command of Col. Grant. 

Fort Edward, 19th June, 1759. The Royal Highlanders will 
furnish one Sub. and 30 men towards the working party required 
tomorrow to repair the roads. 

Fort Edward, 20th June. Capt. Campbell of the Royal High- 
land Grenediers is appointed Major to the Battalion of Grenediers 
for the Campaign. 

Lake George, 22d June, 1759. The Royal Highlanders to 
receive one day's fresh beef tomorrow. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 91 

Lake George 24th June. Field Officer for tomorrow, Major 
Graham. 

Lake George, 26th June, 1759. The Royal Highlanders to 
receive 7 days' provisions tomorrow. 

Lake George, 27th June. Generals Guard tomorrow, Royal 
Highlanders. 2 Companies of Grenediers with 2 Companies of 
Light Infantry ordered this morning with as many Rangers and 
Indians as Maj. Rogers can furnish, the whole commanded by 
Maj. Campbell, to march tomorrow two hours before daybreak by 
the same route Col. Haviland took; which post Capt. Johnson will 
show, and to remain there whilst the boats are fishing. They are 
to take one day's provisions and to go as light as possible as they 
are not only a covering party to the boats, but to attack any body 
of the enemy they may find. 

Lake George, 5th July, 1759. A General Court Martial to 
set tomorrow morning at the President's Tent at 8 o'clock for the 
trial of a man suspected of robbery * * * Major Graham and two 
captains of the Royal Highlanders to attend. 

Lake George 8th July, 1759. The Royal Highlanders will take 
the Gen's Guard tomorrow half an hour after 4. 

Lake George, llth July, 1759. Capt. John Campbell of the 
Royal Highlanders is appointed Major in the late Forbes, and is 
to be obeyed as such. Royal Highlanders to receive 35 batteaux. 
Oars and whatever else belongs to the batteaux will be delivered 
at the same time. Each batteaux will carry 12 barrels of flour or 
9 of pork when ordered to load, and it is supposed will have about 
20 men or a few more in each battoe. 

Lake George, 12th July. A General Court Martial of the 
Regulars to be held tomorrow morning at 6 o'clock. Col. Grant 
President, Major John Campbell to attend. 

Lake George, 13th July. Colonel of the Day tomorrow, Col. 
Grant. Field Officer tomorrow night, Major Graham. Generals 
Guard tomorrow, Royal Highlanders. The General Court Martial 
of which Col. Grant was President, is dissolved. Royal Highland- 



92 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

ers to receive a proportion of flour for five days wihch they are 
to get baked tomorrow and keep. 

Lake George, 19th July, 1759. The Royal Highlanders one of 
the Regiments appointed to sit in general Court Martial tomorrow 
at 6 o'clock. The Regiments to load their batteaux tomorrow 
morning beginning at 5 o'clock in the following manner, Montgom- 
ery's Pork, Royal Highlanders, Flour, * * * two regiments to load 
at a time, one flour and one pork, and to be allowed an hour for 
loading, and when loaded to return to their stations. 

Lake George, 20th July, 1759. For the day this day, Regulars, 
Col. Grant. On landing the Col. Grant to take the command of 
the late Forbes' Brigade. 

Camp near Ticonderoga, 22d July. For the Picquit tomorrow 
night, Major Graham. 

Camp before Ticonderoga, 23d July, 1759. Collo. of the day 
tomorrow, Collo. Grant. Field Officer of the Picquits this night, 
Major Graham. 

Camp at Ticonderoga, 24th July, 1759. Serjt. Murray of the 
Royal Highland Regiment is appointed to oversee people making 
Fasciens, and to keep an account of the number made. 

Camp at Ticonderoga, 25th July, 1759. The following car- 
penters * * * James Frazer, George McDougall, James Frazer, John 
McColme, John Robinson, James Gumming, and James McDonald 
of the Royal Highlanders to be at the sawmills tomorrow at 5 
o'clock and if Capt. Loreing should not be there they will receive 
their directions from Brigadier Ruggles. 

The Royal Highland Regiment to draw tomorrow early two 
days bisquit and two days pork, bisquit in lieu of flour, which 
completes them to the 28th inclusive. 

Ticonderoga, 26th July, 1759. Adjutant for the day tomorrow 
Royal Highlands. 

Ticonderoga, 28th July, 1759. A General Court Martial of the 
line to be held at the President's tent at 8 o'clock tomorrow morn- 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 93 

ing. Col. Grant, President, two Majors and ten Captains, two of 
whom were from the Royal Highlanders. 

Ticonderoga, 29th July, 1759. The ovens to be given for the 
use of troops in the following manner: * * * No. 2 to the 
Inniskilling and Royal Highlanders. No bakers but such as those 
Corps imploy to make in any of those ovens. The Royal Highland 
Regiments to strick their tents and march immediately to the Land- 
ing Place, and they will send their tents and baggage in batteaux. 

Ticonderoga, 1st August, 1759. As a number of shoes are come 
up, intended for the use of the Army, and will be delivered to them 
at the prime cost in England, which three shillings and six pence 
per pair. The Regiments may receive in the following manner 
and proportion, or as many of that proportion as they like to take 
bj T applying to Mr. Tucker, agent to Mr. Kilby at the Landing 
Place. Royal Highlanders 366. 

Capt. Reid is appointed Major to the Royal Highland Regi- 
ment. 

Crown Point, 5th August, 1759. Collo. of the day tomorrow 
Regulars Collo. Grant; Field officer for the Picquits tomorrow night 
Maj. Reid. 

Crown Point, 6th August, 1759. Adjutant of the day tomorrow 
Royal Highlanders. As twenty-four barrels of Spruce beer is come 
to the fort the corps may send for it immediately in the following 
proportions * * * Royal Highlanders, three barrels. 

Crown Point, 7th August, 1759. Corporal Sinclair of the 
Highlanders and Parceloo of the Inniskilling Regiment with 16 
leabours used to digging to attend Lieut. Gray Tomorrow at 5 
o'clock; the evening gun is the signal for the working party to 
leave of work. 

Crown Point, 8th August, 1759. The Regulars to receive 4 
days provisions tomorrow of pork, beginning at Revallie Beating 
by Forbes followed by Royal Highlanders, etc. It is concluded 
that they have their bread from Ticonderoga as was ordered. 



94 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Crown Point, 10th August, 1759. Ens. Gregor of the Royal 
Highlanders * * * are appointed overseers of the works that are 
carrying on at tke fort. They will attend Lieut. Col. Eyre tomor- 
row morning at 5 o'clock and follow such directions as they shall 
receive from him. 

Crown Point, llth August, 1759. Collo. of the day tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. For the building of the fort the following quarriers 
* * * five of the Royal Highlanders * * * to attend Lieut. Col. 
Eyre tomorrow morning at the hour of work, and are to continue 
daily to work as quarriers. 

Crown Point, 12th August, 1759. Adjutant of the Day 
tomorrow, Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 14th August, 1759. Field officer for the work 
tomorrow, Major Reid. 

Crown Point, 15th August. 1759. The following Surgeons 
Mates are to join the Regiments and serve as Mates in room of 
Officers serving as such; Mr. Goldthwat an additional Mate in the 
Royal Highlanders to be put on the establishment of Forbe's, Mr. 
Carter to the Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 16th August, 1759. The following sawiers are 
to attend Lieut. Col. Eyre tomorrow at 5 o'clock: * * * Royal 
Highlanders, Robert Kennedy, John McFarling and Robert Bain. 
The following masons are likewise to attend Lieut. Col. Eyre to- 
morrow morning at 5 o'clock: * * * Royal Highlanders, Dougal 
McKeafter and John Stewart. The above artificers are to work 
daily and to follow such directions as they shall receive from Lieut. 
Col. Eyre. 

Crown Point, 17th August, 1759. Collo. of the day tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. The following masons to attend Lieut. Col. Eyre 
tomorrow morning at five o'clock; * * * Royal Highlanders Angus 
McDonald and William Milligan. 

Crown Point, 18th August, 1759. Adjutant of the day tomor- 
row, Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 24th Aug., 1759. Adjutant of the day, tomor- 
row, Royal Highlanders. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 95 

Crown Point, 27th August, 1759. The following soldiers to 
attend Lieut. Eyre tomorrow morning at 5 o'clock and to take their 
directions from him; Royal Highlanders, John Fraser, John Mc- 
Elvore, James Bruce, Allex'r Sutherland. 

Crown Point, 28th Aug. Field Officer of the work tomorrow- 
Major Reid. 

Crown Point, 30 August, 1759. Adjutant of the day, Royal 
Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 1st Sept. Collo. of the day, tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. 

Crown Point, 3d September, 1759. John McNeal, Grenadier 
in Royal Highland Regiment, * * * to attend Lieut. Col. Eyre this 
day at 12 o'clock and to follow such directions as he shall give. 

Crown Point, 4th Sept., 1759. Collo. of the day, tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. Field Officer for the work, Major Reid. The men 
of the Royal Highland Regiment who have been employed in 
making baskets will be paid for the same by the Quartermaster's 
applying to Mr. Gray this afternoon after the work is over. The 
Regiments to receive tomorrow morning two pounds of fresh meat 
and one pound of rice for the number of men set opposite the 
names of each corps, and the Regiments are to apply said fresh 
beef and rice entirely for the use of the sick. Royal Highlanders 
22. 

Crown Point, 5th Sept., 1759. Field Officer for the works 
tomorrow, Major Reid. Adjutant of the day, tomorrow, Royal 
Highlanders. Allex'r Forbes of the Royal Highlanders, mason, to 
accompany Lieut. Col. Eyre tomorrow and follow such directions 
as he shall give. 

Crown Point, 6th Sept. Serjt. Clark of the Royal Highlanders 
to be one of the four sergeants to attend the works daily and to 
receive directions from Lieut. Col. Eyre. 

Crown Point, 7th Sept. For the day, tomorrow, Collo. Grant. 

Crown Point, llth Sept. Adjutant of the day tomorrow, Royal 
Highlanders. A general court martial of the Regulars to sit tomor- 



96 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

row at the President's Tent at 8 o'clock; Collo. Foster, President, 
Major John Campbell, Major Reid, * * one captain of the Royal 
Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 12th Sept. A detachment of 100 Grenadiers, 30 
of the Light Infantry of Regiments, non-commissioned officers in 
proportion to be commanded by a captain of the Grenadiers and 2 
Subalterns of each Corps to parade tomorrow at Revallie beating 
on the left of the front of the light infantry and to take 30 bat- 
teaux to Ticonderoga where he is to apply to the Commissary and 
load 15 with 30 barrels of flour in each batteaux, the other 15 with 
16 barrels of pork each. The Royal Highland Regiment to furnish 
the batteaux and the captain commanding the party will see them 
this night that they may be ready to set off at Revallie beating and 
to return as soon as they are loaded. 

Crown Point, 15th Sept., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. Field Officer for the Picquits this night, Regulars Major 
Reid. Field Officer for the works tomorrow, Major John Campbell. 

Crown Point, 16th Sept., 1759. Field Officer for the works to- 
morrow, Major Reid. 

Crown Point, 17th Sept. Adjutant of the day tomorrow, Royal 
Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 18th Sept., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. 

Crown Point, 21st Sept., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. For the Picquits this night, Major Reid. Field Officer for 
the works tomorrow, Major John Campbell. 

Crown Point, 23d Sept., 1759. Adjutant of the day tomorrow, 
Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 25th Sept. Lieut. Tolmey of the Royal High- 
landers is appointed Overseer for the work on the fort and to 
receive his directions from Leiut. Col. Eyre. 

Crown Point, 26th Sept., 1759. Field officer for the Picquits 
this night, Major John Campbell; tomorrow night, Major Reid. 



LORD HOWE MONUMENT, (TROUT BROOK.) TICONOERQGA, N 




AT TTCONDE'ROGA 

Eoulde;- in Academy Park to the lie.oeo CK the Four IC-ti- 
French, British and American who fought at Ticonderoga. 



Indian, 



Monument marking the spot at the mouth of Trout Brook, where 
Lord Howe was supposed to have fallen. 
(Both Boulder and Monument were erected by the late Rev. Joseph Cook) 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 97 

Crown Point, 27th Sept., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. Field Officer for the Picquits this night, Major Reid. 

Crown Point, 29th Sept. Adjutant for the day tomorrow, 
Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 30th Sept., 1759. Collo. for the day tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. 

Crown Point, 2d Oct., 1759. Field Officer for the Picquits this 
night, Major John Campbell; tomorrow night, Major Reid. 

Crown Point, 3d October. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. Field Officer for the Picquits this night, Major Reid. Field 
Officer for the works tomorrow, John Campbell. A General Court 
martial of the Regulars to sit at the President's tent tomorrow at 
9 o'clock * * * two captains of the Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 5th Oct., 1759. Adjutant of the day tomorrow, 
Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 6th Oct., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. The regular regiments to give in their cartridges that are 
damaged this day to the artillery and to receive as much powder, 
paper, ball and twine as will compleat their ammunition. The 
Royal Highlanders 475. 

Crown Point, 7th October. The Regiments to prepare their 
batteaux to the following numbers and to have their sails fixed 
according to patern Col. Haviland approved of; * * '* Royal 
Highlanders 24, * * * 

Crown Point, 8th October. Royal Highlanders are to take 
two batteaux more than what were ordered yesterday. 

Crown Point, 9th October. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. Field Officer for Picquits this night, Major Reid. The 
undermentioned Corps are to send a batteaux each at Retreat beat- 
ing to Ticonderoga to receive tomorrow morning the following 
number of loaves weighing six pounds and a half each ; they are to 
pay to the person Gen. Lyman appoints to receive the money the 
following sums being one penny sterling for baking seven pounds of 
flour: Royal Highlanders 460 loaves, 1; 7; 8 Sterling. * * 



98 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The Royal Highlanders are to leave Subaltern Officer each, 
exclusive of officers employed as overseers at the King's Works, 
with three Sergeants, three Corp'ls each with the men that are left 
behind; when the Regiments march, the officers and men of each 
corps will encamp on the Center of the encampment of the Corps 
* * * and a sentry to be kept in the encampment that nothing 
may be spoiled or taken away during the absence of the Regiment. 
The Regiments are to give the following numbers for the Brig and 
Sloop and will send seamen if they have them: For the Brig, * * 
Royal Highlanders 14 men. 

Crown Point, llth Oct., 1759. Adjutant of the day tomorrow, 
Royal Highlanders. 

Lake Shamplaine, 15th Oct., 1759. For the day tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. 

Ligonier Bay, 14th Oct., 1759. Field Officer for the Picquit 
this night, Major John Campbell; tomorrow night, Major Reid. 

Lake Shamplaine, 15th Oct., 1759. For the day tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. Field Officer for the Picquits this night, Major Reid. 

Camp at Schuylers Island, 18th Oct., 1759. For the day to- 
morrow, Collo. Grant. 

Crown Point, 22nd Oct., 1759. Adjutant of the day tomorrow, 
Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 25th October. 22 men of the Royal Highlanders 
are to be sent to the Hospital at Fort Edward. * * The surgeon 
c-f the Royal Highlanders is to attend them to Fort Edward, a 
Corporal and 6 men of the Royal Highlanders with one batteaux 
* * * are to convey the sick to the Sawmills, where the officer will 
leave the batteau with Lieut. Col. Miller and march the sick to the 
Landing Place. 

Crown Point, 27th Oct., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. Field Officer for the Picquits this night, Major Reid. 

Crown Point, 28th Oct., 1759. Adjutant for the day tomorrow, 
Royal Highlanders. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 99 

Crown Point, 30th October. Officer for the day, tomorrow, 
Collo. Grant. A General Court martial to be held at the President's 
Tent tomorrow at 9 o'clock to try all such prisoners as shall be 
brought before them; Col. Grant, President, * * * One Captain of 
the Royal Highlanders. 

Crown Point, 31st Oct., 1759. Field Officer for the Picquits 
this night, Major Reid. The General Court martial of which Collo. 
Grant was President is dissolved; the Prisoners of the Royal High- 
land Regiment is acquitted. 

Crown Point, 1st Nov., 1759. For the day tomorrow, Collo. 
Grant. 

Crown Point, 3d Nov., 1759. For the Picquits tomorrow night, 
Major John Campbell; for the works tomorrow, Major John Camp- 
bell; Adjutant of the day tomorrow, Royal Highlanders. 



N 

COLONEL ROGER TOWNSHEND. 

Roger Townshend, fifth son of Charles Viscount Townshend, 
and younger brother of Gen'l George Townshend (afterwards 4th 
Viscount and 1st Marquis) to whom Quebec surrendered when 
Wolfe was killed, was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel 1st Feb., 
1758, and served as Adjutant-General in the Expedition against 
Louisbourg, and Deputy Adjutant-General in this Campaign with 
Rank of Colonel. He was killed in the Trenches before Ticonde- 
roga by a cannon ball on the 25th July, 1759. and his remains 
were transmitted to Albany for interment. His spirit and military 
knowledge justly entitled him to the esteem of every soldier; and 
accordingly the loss of him was universally lamented. 



Knox I, 360, 289, 401, 403. 
Wilson's Orderly Book, page 77. 



Supplement to the New York Mercury, Tuesday, July 31, 1759. 
Extract from a letter dated Albany, July 29, 1759. 



100 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

"The same evening (July 27), an Express arrived from Ticon- 
deroga, with an account of Colonel Townshend being killed, in 
reconnoitering the Fort, by a cannon ball. 

Yesterday about 12 o'clock, Colonel Townshend's corpse ar- 
rived here, and was decently interred." 

In the "Church Book" St. Peter's, Albany, appears the following 
entry: 
1759 July 30 To cash received for braking ground in the 

church to lay the body of Coll. Townson 5/0/0 

To cash ret for Paull 9 



The following is a copy of the inscription on the monument to 
Col. Townshend in Westminster Abbey 

"This Monument was erected 

By a disconsolate Parent 

The Lady Viscountess Townshend 

To the Memory of her Fifth Son 

The Hon'ble Lieut. Colonel Roger Townshend 

who was killed by a Cannon Ball 

on the 25th of July, 1759, in the 28th year of his age 

as he was reconnoitering ye French lines at Ticonderoga 

In North America 

From the Parent the Brother and the Friend 
His sociable and amiable manners 

His enterprizing Bravery 

And the Integrity of His Heart 

May claim the tribute of affliction 

Yet Stranger weep not 
For tho' premature His Death 

His life v r as glorious 

Enrolling Him with the names 

of those Immortal Statesmen and Commanders 

Whose wisdom and Intrepidity 
In the course of this Comprehensive i<nd Successful War 

Have Extended the Commerce 

And upheld the Majesty of these Kingdoms 

Beyond the idea of any former age." 








Monument to Lieut. Colonel Roger Townshend in Westminster Abbey 

(The Bayonet on Monument found on battlefield of Ticonderoga and 

placed on memorial by Dean Stanley) 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 101 

The following is an extract from a letter from the head verger 
of Westminster Abbey 

"I should like to draw your attention to the broken bayonet 
in the upper part of the Townshend monument. It is a relic of the 
struggle between the French and English in North America and it 
comes from Ticonderoga and may have been used in that particular 
'march to Ticonderoga, where Col. Townshend was killed.' It was 
given to Dean Stanley when in America and he fixed it on the 
monument as he did the wreath of leaves on the monument of 
Major Andre. 

Lord Eversley, who when H. M. first Commissioner of Works 
was the Rt. Hon. J. G. Shaw Lefevre is much struck by the 
Townshend inscription, especially the latter part, which, he has told 
me, is worthy of Edmund Burke and which I know he would like 
to attribute to that great orator and statesman." 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A Military History of Perthshire, 1660-1902. Edited by the 
Marchioness of Tullibardine. Perth R. A. & J. Hay, 1908. 

Chronicles of the Atholl and Tullibardine Families. Collected 
and arranged by John, Seventh Duke of Atholl, K. T., in Five 
Volumes. Ballantyle Press, 1908. 

Sketches of the Character, Manners and Present State of the 
Highlanders of Scotland, with details of the Military Service of 
the Highland Regiments, by Colonel David Stewart (of Garth), 
Edinburgh. Archibald, Constable & Co., 1822. 

The Scottish Highlands, Highland Clans and Regiments, by 
John S. Keltie, F. S. A. S. Edinburgh, A. Fullerton & Co. 

The Regimental Records of the British Army, by John S. 
Farmer, London, Grant Richards, 1901. 

An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch Highlanders 
in America, etc., by J. P. MacLean, Ph. D. Cleveland, The Helmar- 
Taylor Co., Glasgow, John MacKay, 1900. 



102 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Historical Record of the 42nd or Royal Highland Regiment of 
Foot, 1729-1844. Illustrated. London, Parker, 1845. 

Historical Record of the 73rd Regiment, 1780-1851. Illustrated. 
London. Parker, 1851. 

Chronology and Book of Days of the 42nd Royal Highlanders, 
The Black Watch, 1729-1905. Berwick-on-Tweed, Martin's Print- 
ing Works, 1906. 

History of Black Watch. Johnston, 1893. 

The Black Watch. The Record of an Historic Regiment, by 
Archibald Forbes, LL. D. Cassell & Co., 1910. 

Black Watch Episode of the Year 1731, by H. D. MacWilliam. 
Johnston, 1908. 

Short History of the Black Watch, 1725-1907. Blackwood, 
1908. 

The Official Records of the Mutiny in the Highland Regiment 
(The Black Watch), A London Incident of the Year 1743, by 
H. D. MacWilliam. Johnston, 1910. 

Legends of the Black Watch, by James Grant, Routledge, 1904. 

Knox's Journal. 

Brown's Highland Clans. 

Beaston's Naval and Military Memoirs. 

A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. Chambers. 
Glasgow, 1832-35. 

Pennsylvania Colonial Records. 

Correspondence of William Pitt when Secretary of State, with 
Colonial Governors, etc., by Gertrude Selwyn Kimball. MacMillian, 
1906. 

Commissary Wilson's Orderly Book. Expedition of the British 
and Provincial Army under Maj. Gen. Jeffrey Amherst, against 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 1759. Albany, J. Munsell. London, 
Trubner Co., 1857. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 103 

New York Colonial Manuscript, by Broadhead, Weed, Parsons 
& Co., Albany, 1856. 

History of Canada. Translated from L'Histoire du Canada 
by F. X. Garneau, by Andrew Bell. Richard Worthington & Son, 
Montreal, 1866. 

Illustrated Histories of the Scottish Regiments by Lieut. Col- 
onel Percy Groves. Illustrated by Harry Payne. Edinburgh, 1893. 

The Regimental Records of the 1st and 2nd Battalions The 
Black Watch. 

The Regimental Records of the Perthshire Militia, now the 
3rd Battalion, The Black Watch. 

Cannon's Official History of the 42nd, 1729-1844. 

Cannon's Official History of the 73rd, 1779-1850. 

The Annual Register. 

Records and Badges of the British Army. Chichester. 

Standards and Colors of the Army. Milne. 

War Medals of the British Army. Carter and Long. 

The Black Watch. Andrew Picken. 

Reminiscences of a Campaign. John Malcolm, 42nd. 

Retrospect of a Military Life. Q. M. S. Anton, 42nd. 

Fontenoy, The Campaign of. Skrine. 

Mangalore, The Siege of. By an Officer Present. 

Recollections of a Military Life. Sergeant Morris, 73rd. 

Military Reminiscences (Polygar Campaigns). Colonel Welsh. 

Five Years in Kaffirland (Second War). Mrs. Ward. 

Campaigning in Kaffirland. 

The 5th Regiment Royal Scots of Canada. Captain Chambers. 

History of the British Army. J. W. Fortescue. 



104 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Memoirs of Sergeant Donald Macleod. Late 42nd. 
Reminiscences of a Veteran. Alexander Robb, Late 42nd. 

p 

The British Army. 

Milne in "Standards and Colors of the Army," says that the 
British Army as a permanent force dates from 26 January 1660-61. 
Charles II established three troops of Life Guards one of Horse 
(subsequently Royal Horse Guards Blue), the King's Royal Regi- 
ment of Guards (now Grenadier Guards), and the Duke of Albe- 
marle's Regiment of Foot (now Coldstream Guards.) 

The Present Establishment: 

I. The Cavalry. 

The First Life Guards, The Second Life Guards, The Royal 
Horse Guards (The Blues), The First (The King's) Dragoon 
Guards, The Second Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays), The Third 
(The Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards. The Fourth (Royal 
Irish Dragoon Guards, The Fifth (Princess Charlotte of Wales's) 
Dragoon Guards, The Sixth Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers) , The 
Seventh (The Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards, The First 
(Royal) Dragoons, The Second Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys), The 
Third (The King's Own) Hussars, The Fourth (The Queen's 
Own) Hussars, The Fifth (Royal Irish) Lancers, The Sixth (Innis- 
killing) Dragoons, The Seventh (The Queen's Own) ) Hussars, The 
Eighth (The King's Royal Irish) Hussars, The Ninth (The 
Queen's Royal) Lancers, The Tenth (The Prince of Wales' Own 
Royal) Hussars, The Eleventh (Prince Albert's Own) Hussars, The 
Twelfth (The Prince of Wales's Royal) Lancers, The Thirteenth 
Hussars, The Fourteenth (The King's) Hussars, The Fifteenth (The 
King's) Hussars, The Sixteenth (The Queen's) Lancers, The Seven- 
teenth (The Duke of Cambridge's Own) Lancers, The Eighteenth 
Hussars, The Nineteenth (Princess of Wales's Own) Hussars, The 
Twentieth Hussars, The Twenty-first (Empress of India's) Lancers. 

II. The Royal Artillery. 

The Royal Regiment of Artillery. 



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THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 105 

III. The Royal Engineers. 

The Corps of Royal Engineers. 

IV. The Foot Guards. 

The Grenadier Guards, The Coldstream Guards, The Scots 
Guards, The Irish Guards. 

V. Territorial Regiments (Regiments of Foot). 

The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment), formerly The 1st. 

The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment), formerly The 2nd. 

The Buffs (East Kent Regiment), formerly The 3rd. 

The King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment), formerly The 4th. 

The Northumberland Fusiliers, formerly The 5th. 

The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, formerly The 6th. 

The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) , formerly The 7th. 

The King's (Liverpool Regiment), formerly The 8th. 

The Norfolk Regiment, formerly The 9th. 

The Lincolnshire Regiment, formerly The 10th. 

The Devonshire Regiment, formerly The llth. 

The Suffolk Regiment, formerly The 12th. 

The Prince Albert's (Somersetshire Light Infantry), formerly The 
13th. 

The Prince of Wales's Own (West Yorkshire Regiment), formerly 
The 14th. 

The East Yorkshire Regiment, formerly The 15th. 
The Bedfordshire Regiment, formerly The 16th. 
The Leicestershire Regiment, formerly The 17th. 
The Royal Irish Regiment, formerly The 18th. 

The Princess of Wales's Own (Yorkshire Regiment) , formerly The 
19th. 



106 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The Lancashire Fusiliers, formerly The 20th (East Devonshire). 
The Royal Scots Fusiliers, formerly The 21st. 
The Cheshire Regiment, formerly The 22nd. 
The Royal Welsh Fusiliers, formerly The 23rd. 

The South Wales Borderers, formerly The 24th. (2nd Warwick- 
shire) . 

The King's Own Scottish Borderers, formerly The 25th. 
The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) 
1st Batt, formerly The 26th. 

2nd Batt., formerly The 90th. (Perthshire Volunteers Light 
Infantry). 

The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, 1st Batt., formerly The 27th. 
2nd Batt., formerly The 108th (Madras Infantry). 

The Gloucestershire Regiment, 1st. Batt., formerly The 28th (North 
Gloucestershire) . 

2nd Batt., formerly The 61st (South Gloucestershire). 
The Worcestershire Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 29th. 
2nd Batt., Formerly The 36th (Herefordshire). 

The East Lancashire Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 30th (Cam- 
bridgeshire) . 

2nd Batt., formerly The 59th (2nd Nottinghamshire). 

The East Surrey Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 31st (Hunting- 
donshire). 

2nd Batt., formerly The 70th (Surrey). 

Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 1st Batt., formerly The 32nd. 
2nd Batt., formerly The 46th (South Devonshire) . 

The Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment) 1st Batt., for- 
merly The 33rd. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 107 

2nd Batt., formerly The 76th. 

The Border Regiment, 1st Batt, formerly The 34th (Cumberland). 
2nd Batt., formerly The 55th (Westmoreland). 

The Royal Sussex Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 35th. 
2nd Batt., formerly The 10th (Bengal Infantry). 

The Hampshire Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 37th. 
2nd Batt., formerly The 67th (South Hampshire). 

The South Staffordshire Regiment, 1st Batt,, formerly The 38th 
(1st Staffordshire). 
2nd Batt., formerly The 80th (Staffordshire Volunteers). 

The Dorsetshire Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 39th. 
2nd Batt., formerly The 54th (West Norfolk). 

The Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire Regiment, 1st 
Batt., formerly The 40th (2nd Somersetshire) ; 2nd Batt., for- 
merly The 82nd. 

The Welsh Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 41st; 2nd Batt., for- 
merly The 69th (South Lincolnshire). 

The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) 1st Batt, formerly The 
42nd; 2nd Batt,, formerly The 73rd (Perthshire). 

The Oxfordshire Light Infantry, 1st Batt., formerly The 43rd 
(Monmouthshire Light Infantry), 2nd Batt., formerly The 
52nd. 

The Essex Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 44th; 2nd Batt., The 
56th (West Essex) . 

The Sherwood Foresters (Derbyshire Regiment), 1st Batt., formerly 
the 45th (Nottinghamshire) ; 2nd Batt., The 95th (Derbyshire). 

The Royal North Lancashire Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 
47th (Lancashire) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 81st (Loyal Lin- 
coln Volunteers). 

The Northamptonshire Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 48th; 2nd 

Batt., formerly The 58th (Rutlandshire). 
Princess Charlotte of Walee's (Royal Berkshire Regiment), 1st 



108 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Batt., formerly The 49th (Hertfordshire); 2 Batt., formerly 
The 66th (Berkshire) . 

The Queen's Own (Royal West Kent) Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly 
The 50th 2nd Batt., formerly The 97th (The Earl of Ulster's). 

The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, 1st Batt., formerly The 
51st (2nd Yorkshire West Riding); 2nd Batt., The 105th 
(Madras Light Infantry). 

The King's (Shropshire Light Infantry) 1st Batt., formerly The 
53rd; 2nd Batt., formerly The 85th (Bucks Volunteers). 

The Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment), 1st Batt., 
formerly The 57th (West Middlesex) ; 2nd Batt., formerly 
The 77th (East Middlesex). 

The King's Royal Rifle Corps, formerly The 60th. 

The Duke of Edinburgh's (Wiltshire Regiment) , 1st Batt., formerly 
The 62nd; 2nd Batt., formerly The 99th. 

The Manchester Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly the 63rd (West Suf- 
folk) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 96th. 

The Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire Regiment), 1st Batt., 
formerly The 64th (2nd Staffordshire) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 
98th. 

The York and Lancaster Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly The 65th 
(2nd Yorkshire, North Riding) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 84th 
(York and Lancaster). 

The Durham Light Infantry, 1st Batt. formerly The 68th; 2nd 
Batt., formerly 106th (Bombay Light Infantry). 

The Highland Light Infantry, 1st Batt., formerly The 71st; 2nd 
Batt. formerly The 74th. 

The Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's 
Own Regiment of Foot), 1st Batt., formerly The 72nd; 2nd 
Batt., The 78th. 

The Gordon Highlanders, 1st Batt., formerly The 75th (Stirling- 
shire), 2nd Batt., formerly The 92nd. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEBOGA 109 

The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, 1st Batt., formerly The 
79th. 

The Royal Irish Rifles, 1st Batt., formerly The 83rd (County Dub- 
lin) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 86th (Royal County Down). 

Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers) 1st Batt., formerly The 
87th; 2nd Batt., formerly The 89th. 

The Connaught Rangers, 1st Batt., formerly The 88th, 2nd Batt., 
formerly The 94th. 

The Princess Louise's (Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders), 1st Batt., 
formerly The 91st; 2nd Batt., formerly The 93rd. 

The Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment (Royal Canadians), 1st 
Batt., formerly The 100th (Prince of Wales's Royal (Can- 
adian) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 109th (Bombay Infantry). 

The Royal Munster Fusiliers, 1st Batt., formerly The 101st (Royal 
Bengal Fusiliers) ; 2nd Batt., formerly The 104th (Bengal Fusi- 
liers) . 

The Royal Dublin Fusiliers, 1st Batt., formerly The 102nd (Royal 
Madras Fusiliers) ; 2nd Batt., The 103rd (Royal Bombay Fusi- 
liers) . 

The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own). 

The West India Regiment, 1st Batt., formerly Malcolm's Black 
Rangers; 2nd Batt., formerly The St. Vincent's Black Rangers. 

The Royal Marines, Royal Marine Artillery, Royal Marine Light 
Infantry. 

Q 

TICONDEROGA 

Ticonderoga, familiar as the name of the historic fortress at 
Lake George, was written by Sir William Johnson, in 1756, Tionde- 
rogue and Ticonderoro, and in grant of lands in 1760, "near the 
fort at Ticonderoga." Gov. Golden wrote Ticontarogen, and an 
Iroquoian sachem is credited with Decariaderoga. Interpretations 
are almost as numerous as orthographies. The most generally 



110 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

quoted is from Spofford's Gazetter: "Ticonderoga, from Tsin- 
drosie, or Cheonderoga, signifying 'brawling water,' and the French 
name, Carillon, signifying 'a chime of bells/ were both suggested 
by the rapids upon the outlet of Lake George." The French name 
may have been so suggested, but neither Tsindrosie or Cheonderoga 
means "brawling water." The latter is probably an orthography 
of Teonderoga. Ticonderoga as now written, is from Te or Ti, 
''dual," two; Kaniatare, "lake," and -ogen, "intervallum, diviai- 
onem" (Bruyas), the combination meaning, literally "Between two 
lakes." Horatio Hale wrote me of one of the forms "Dekariaderage, 
in modern orothography, Tekaniataroken, from which Ticonderoga, 
means, simple 'Between two lakes.' It is derived from Tioken, 
'between,' and Kaniatara, 'lake.' Its composition illustrates a pecu- 
liar idiom of the Iroquoian language. Tioken when combined with 
a noun, is split in two, so to speak, and the noun inserted. Thus in 
combining Tioken with Oneonte, 'mountain,' we have Ti-ononte- 
oken, 'Between two mountains,' which was the name of one of the 
Mohawk castles sometimes written Theonondioga. In like manner, 
Kaniatare, 'lake/ thus compounded, yields Te-kaniatare-oken, 
'Between two lakes.' In the Huron dialect Kiniatare is contracted 
to Yontare or Ontare, from which, with io or iyo, 'great/ we get 
Ontario (pronounced Ontareeyo), 'Great lake/ which combined with 
Tioken, becomes Tionteroken, which would seem to be the original 
of Colden's Ticonderoga." 

("Indian Geographical Names," by E. M. Ruttenber, page 71 
Vol. VI, New York State Historical Association). 



R 

TESTIMONIALS TO THE BLACK WATCH. 

The Virginia Gazette, July 30, 1767, published an article from 
which the following extracts have been taken: 

"Last Sunday evening, the Royal Highland Regiment embarked 
from Philadelphia for Ireland, which regiment, since its arrival 
in America, had been distinguished for having undergone most 
amazing fatigues, made long and frequent marches through an 
unhospitable country, bearing excessive heat and severe cold with 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 111 

alacrity and cheerfulness, frequently encamping in deep snow, such 
as those who inhabit the interior parts of this province do not see, 
and which only those who inhabit the most northern parts of 
Europe can have any Idea of, continually exposed in camp and on 
their marches to the alarms of a savage enemy, who, in all their 
attempts, were forced to fly. * * * And, in a particular manner, 
the free-men of this and the neighboring provinces have most 
sincerely to thank them for that resolution and bravery with which 
they, under Colonel Boquet, and a small number of Royal Ameri- 
cans, defeated the enemy, and ensured to us peace and security 
from a savage foe; and, along with our blessings for these benefits, 
they have our thanks for that decorum in behavior which they 
maintained during their stay in this city, giving an example that 
the most amiable behavior in civil life is no way inconsistent with 
the character of the good soldier; and for their loyalty, fidelity, and 
orderly behavior, they have every wish of the people for health, 
honor, and a pleasant voyage." 



Extract from speech by the elder Pitt in vindication of the 
employment of Highland Regiments of which the Black Watch 
was the first raised of the eighty-six during the four wars between 
1739 and 1815. 

"I sought for merit wherever it was to be found; it is my 
boast that I was the first Minister who looked for it and found it 
in the mountains of the North. I called it forth and drew into 
your service a hardy and intrepid race of men, who, when left by 
your jealousy, became a prey to the artifice of your enemies, and 
had gone nigh to have overturned the State in the war before the 
last. These men in the last war were brought to combat on your 
side, they served with fidelity as they fought with valour, and 
conquered for you in every part of the world." 



112 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

s 

COPY OF ALL REFERENCES TO THE BLACK WATCH OF 

THE TICONDEROGA PERIOD TO BE FOUND IN THE 

ARCHIVES OF THE DOMINION OF CANADA 

AT OTTAWA. 

/ am indebted for this Memorandum to Arthur Doughty Litt. 
D. } Archivist of the Dominion of Canada. 

1758. Abercrombie to Haldimand (?) Plan of opera- 

March 29, tions settled at Home. Southern Operations. 

New York. 

Corps, Blakeney's, Lord John Murray's &c. 

B.6 p.35 

1756. M.204-2 p.397 Shirley to Fox 

New York. 

Just arrived from Albany Major Abercrombie and 
General Webb arrived one on the 25th of June and 
the other the next morning with great part of Ot- 
way's Regiment and with all the Highland Regi- 
ments, <fec. 

In a letter from Abercrombie to London dated 
Albany, 3d August, 1756. 

Col. Schuyler's New Jersey Regiment and four 
North Carolina Companies are barely sufficient to 
Garrison Oswego and keep the communication open 
to Schenectady and there remains the 48th Regi- 
ment together with Otway's and the Highlanders 
to Garrison Fort William Henry, &c., &c. 

M.205-1 p. 

1756. James Abercrombie to On the 15th of April 

June 21. sailed from Plymouth and arrived here on the 16th 

New York. June with General Otway's and Lord John Mur- 
ray's Regiments, &c. B. 205-1 p.8 




LORD HOWE STONE 

Unearthed at Ticonderoga, Oct. 1889. Now Preserved at Headquarters 

House 



1756. 
Aug. 29, 
Albany. 



1756. 
,Sept. 4. 
Boston. 



1756. 
Nov. 22, 
Albany. 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA '113 

London to -Fox. 



Though I was informed that the whole Trans- 
ports with the Highland Recruits were arrived, I 
heard this morning that there were still five miss- 
ing, and that those that are come were very short 
of Provisions, they were victualled only for two 
months, &c., &c. M.205-1 p.240 

Shirley to Loudon. 

Upon this I beg leave to observe to your Lord- 
ship, that it appearing from Col. Webb's letter to 
me dated from New York the 9th June, that Ot- 
way's and the Highland Regiments might be daily 
expected there (Oswego). 

What confirms me in the matter is, that your 
Lordship told me, when I had the honour to wait 
on you, when the day you set from New York, be- 
ing the 26th July that the Garrison at Oswego was 
so weak, that the 44th Regiment was to be sent to 
strengthen it and at the same time your Lordship 
mentioned, that you thought 900 men, by which I 
suppose your Lordship meant Otway's and the 
Highland Regiments were but a few to cover the 
country. 

M.205-2 p.306 
London to Fox 



The 42nd Regiment, I quarter at Schenectady, 
from whence they take the posts, on the Mohawk 
river, &c. 



M.207-1 p.2 



114 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

1757. London to Pitt -. 

April 25. As the Garrison (Fort Henry) had been troubled 

New York. with the scurvy I had ordered Lieutenant General 

Otway's Regiment to relieve them, and Colonel 
Monro met the account of the attack being made 
on the Fort on his march; he immediately left his 
baggage, and made all possible dispatch to Fort 
Edward, where he received the account of their 
being retired. Colonel Gage and Burton followed 
him directly with the remains of the 44th and 
46th Regiments and the Highlanders were sot in 
motion from Schenectady. They all marched with- 
out Tents, and lay in the woods, &c. 

We have on that river (Mohawk), at Schenec- 
tady, and up to the German Flats, the Highland 
Regiment, upwards of a thousand men, &c. 

M.207-1 p.174 

1758. Loudon to Pitt 

Feb'y 14. storming of 

New York. Fort Herkemer and I threw in part of the 42nd 

Regiment of Highlanders into Schenectady, that 
there might be no want of numbers for this serv- 
ice. M.208. p.2 

Divisions of Manuscripts, 
February 22, 1911. 



T 

THE BLACK WATCH MEMORIAL AT TICONDEROGA. 

The genesis of this memorial was an address made by the late 
Joseph Cook at the services held in front of the boulder erected to 
the heroes of Ticonderoga, Academy Park, Ticonderoga, N. Y. 
July 31, 1899, in which he made this remark: "There ought to be 
a memorial to the Black Watch composed largely of Scotch High- 
landers who, with the Colonials charged Montcalm's entrenchments 
for eight consecutive hours." 




Major D. L. Wilson Farguharson, D. S. O., at "Allargue" 

Representation of the Black Watch at Unveiling of Memorial Tablet, 
Ticonderoga, July 4, 1906 



THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 115 

i 

The writer, who was secretary of the Ticonderoga Historical 
Society at that time, had the honor of being the medium through 
which this chance remark became an enduring memorial of brick 
and stone. He was unsuccessful, however, until Mr. David 
Williams, the publisher of "The Iron Age," a summer resident of 
Ticonderoga at Rogers Rock, came to his assistance. Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie was the generous donor of the funds to build this mem- 
orial. The grants were in two amounts, the first gift for a public 
.ibrary with the usual provisions, and the second gift, with no. 
limitations, with which to build an historical addition to the library, 
thus makng it both a public library and historical building. 

The laying of the corner stone, Oct. 4, 1905, was made the 
occasion for one of the greatest celebrations Ticonderoga has ever 
seen. The pipe band of the 5th Royal Scots of Canada, High- 
hinders, now the 5th Royal Highlanders of Canada, from Montreal, 
and the Regimental band and a Battalion of the 5th Infantry, 
U. S. A., from Plattsburgh, were the principal features of the 
parade. It was particularly appropriate that the Royal Scots 
should be present, as they are allied to the Black Watch and wear 
the same uniform. It was also an education to the thousands of 
spectators, few, if any of whom had ever seen Highlanders in full 
regimentals marching to the 'music of bagpipes. After the exer- 
cises of the day, the Royal Scots visited the ruins of old Fort 
Ticonderoga, about two miles from the village and the picture of a 
body of Highlanders with their scarlet coats and tartan kilts 
marching up the green slopes of the old ramparts, with the setting 
sun behind them, was one never to be forgotten and which probably 
had not occurred since the Revolution. 

The officers of the present Black Watch Regiment, then sta- 
tioned at Fort George Scotland, being advised of the Memorial sent 
the following letter to the secretary of the Ticonderoga Historical 
Society : 

"Dear Sir: Your letter 9th Sept., 1905, on the subject of a 
Black Watch Memorial, has been perused by the Commanding 
Officer and the Officers of the 1st battalion of The Black Watch, 
formerly called the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment, and it was also 
submitted and discussed at the Annual Gathering of Black AVatch 



116 NEW YORK STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Officers past and present recently held in Edinburgh. I am 
authorized to inform you that all Ranks of the Regiment are proud 
to know that the Ticonderoga Historical Society had decided to 
appropriate an alcove in the Ticonderoga Free Public Library as a 
memorial to the 42nd Regiment, to commemorate their services in 
the engagement before Fort Ticonderoga on July 8, 1758. The 
suggestion contained in your letter, to the effect that Officers of 
the Regiment might be disposed to erect a tablet on a wall of the 
Alcove to the memory of the officers and men of the 42nd who were 
killed or wounded in the action has met with the unanimous 
approval of those to whose notice it has been brought, and I am to 
inform you that such a Tablet will gladly be provided and that the 
work of executing the Tablet will be entrusted to a London firm 
a* soon as a suitable design has been decided upon. In order to 
assist us in choosing a suitable form of tablet I shall be much 
obliged if you can favor me with a rough plan of the alcove, the 
dimensions of the actual wall on which the Tablet will rest, and an 
idea of the general style of the building. 

I shall be glad to hear from you as soon as you can conven- 
iently supply the information for which I have asked. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 

D. L. Wilson Farquharson. 

Major The Black Watoh. 

The exercises for the unveiling of the memorial tablet July 4, 
1906, was made the occasion for another grand celebration at which 
the full bag pipe band of the 5th Royal Highlanders of Canada 
and a company of 50 men from the same regiment, making a total 
of 75 Highlanders, were a feature of the parade. Major D. L. 
Wilson Farquharson of the Black Watch, came over from Scotland 
to unveil the tablet in behalf of the Regiment. It was accepted by 
Frank B. Wickes of Ticonderoga for the Ticonderoga Historical 
Society. The address of the day was delivered by Senator Edgar 
T. Bracket! of Saratoga Springs. 




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THE BLACK WATCH AT TICONDEROGA 



117 



List of Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Partial List of 

Men Composing Ticonderoga Detachment, 5th Royal 

Highlanders of Canada, July 4th, 1906. 



Capt. A. F. Gault. 
Capt. V. C. Buchanan. 
Capt. C. M. Monsarrat. 
Capt. J. Muir, Quartermaster. 
Scrgt. Major D. A. Bethune. 
Q. M. Sergt. B. Howard. 
Col. Sergt. J. H. A. Mackay. 
Staff Sergt. T. A. Gardiner. 
Staff Sergt. J. Phillips. 
S^rgt. C. Denman. 
Sergt. P. Forde. 
Sergt. T. Mitchell. 
Bugle Sergt. P. Broadhurst. 
Drum Sergt. F. W.^Flood. 
Drum Major, G. Foley. 
Pipe Major, "D. Manson. 
Sergt. J. MacLean. 
Corp. P. W. MacFarlane. 
Corp. H. Massey. 
Corp. N. Manson. 
Corp. P. Sutton. 

Privates. 
J. Bayley. 
F. H. Benson. 
, Walsh. 
A. E. Smith. 
S. Tapster. 
Scobie. 
P. Roache. 
J. Cockburn. 
A. Bishop. 



J. A. McLean. 

Jeffries. 
W. Marsh. 
J. Ferguson. 
J. Corbett. 
J. Palmer. 
C. Myers. 

C. Black. 
J. Stuart. 
J. Roney. 

Dean. 
A. Reid. 
A. Williams. 
A. Betts. 

D. Reid. 

L. Pickering. 



Pipers. 



R. Morrison. 
M. McLeod. 
J. Ferrier. 
D. McArthur. 
D. Brash. 
J. Husband. 
B. Milligan. 



Drummers. 



J. Ryan. 
Gore. 
Kemp. 
Jones. 



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